Recent Advances in Waste Cooking Oil Management and Applications for Sustainable Environment

Recent Advances in Waste Cooking Oil Management and Applications for Sustainable Environment

Ching Thian Tye (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0369-0.ch003
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This chapter discusses the management of waste cooking oil (WCO) in a sustainable manner in order to protect the environmental pollution. Increasing consumption of edible oils worldwide leads to generation of substantial amount of waste cooking oil (WCO). While WCO is not considered toxic, large amount of WCO can contribute to environment pollution if not being handled properly. The huge generation of WCO in the world creates problem of collection, treatment and disposal. Due to its chemical features, the recycling of WCO not only provides a renewable feedstock for producing biofuels and bio-based products, but also alleviates environmental pollution arising from its improper handling. This chapter also provides an overview of some recent approaches in WCO recycling and applications.
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Detrimental Effects Of Food Derived Used Oil And Fat

Fat and oil consumption per capita in developed countries was estimated at over 50 kg/annum compared to less than 20 kg/annum in less developed countries (Williams, Clarkson, Mant, Drinkwater, & May, 2012). It is estimated that 2.5 L of WCO are produced per person per month domestically (European Biomass Industry Association, 2015). In Japan, it is presumed that 100–140 ktonne WCO from household sector are discarded every year (Ministry of Environment, 2006). Oil cannot be removed from cooking operations as it is inveterate in many culinary customs. Used cooking oil is considered a waste upon being discharged into the sewer systems. The waste oil from multiple sites can accumulate in the sewer with other non-flushable waste to cause sewage blockage and overflow, leading to odor, nuisance and creating the corrosion of sewer lines under anaerobic conditions. It has been estimated that 50-75% of approximately 24,750 inline blockages per year in the UK (Arthur et al., 2008) are due to fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits (Keener et al., 2008). In 2000, the Drainage Services Department of Hong Kong claimed that more than 60% of sewer blockages were due to excessive grease build-ups (Chan, 2010). These deposits can impact human health and the environment.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Hydrodeoxygenation: A process for removing oxygen from oxygen containing compound by reacting with hydrogen.

Pyrolysis: A thermal decomposition process of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

Prevention: Action to stop something to happen.

Waste Cooking Oil: Used vegetable oils and animal fats derived from cooking.

Biodiesel: Long chain alkyl esters that is made by catalytic reaction of triglycerides and alcohol.

Recycling: A process to convert waste materials into new materials and objects.

Transesterification: A chemical reaction involves ester and alcohol.

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