Recovery of Natural Nanostructured Minerals: Ferrospheres, Plerospheres, Cenospheres, and Carbonaceous Particles From Fly Ash

Recovery of Natural Nanostructured Minerals: Ferrospheres, Plerospheres, Cenospheres, and Carbonaceous Particles From Fly Ash

Nisha Choudhary (Central University of Gujarat, India), Virendra Kumar Yadav (Sankalchand Patel University, India), Parth Malik (Central University of Gujarat, India), Samreen Heena Khan (Central University of Gujarat, India), Gajendra Kumar Inwati (Department of Chemistry, Kadi University, India), Suriyaprabha R. (Central University of Gujarat, India), Bijendra Singh (Central University of Gujarat, India), A. K. Yadav (Central University of Gujarat, India) and Raman Kumar Ravi (Central University of Gujarat, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1241-8.ch021

Abstract

Nanotechnology is playing an important role in every field of science, medicine, electronics, catalysis, and environmental cleanup. Due to the high demand of nanoparticles, it is synthesized at commercial level by chemical and physical methods, which are expensive and energy intensive. The recovery of natural nanoparticles from the waste materials makes the process cost-effective and simultaneously reduces pollution. Fly ash or coal fly ash (CFA), a by-product of thermal power plants in-houses numerous natural nanoparticles like ferrospheres, plerospheres, cenospheres, and carbon nanoparticles, which finds applications in ceramics, wastewater treatment, lightweight materials, fillers, and composite manufacturing. Every year a million tons of fly ash are produced around the globe. In the chapter, all these fly ash natural nanoparticles have been discussed in detail including their properties, applications, and possible future applications.
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Background

Nanosciences and nanotechnology has played an important role in the electronics, medicine, wastewater treatment and catalysis. Nanomaterials being smaller in size have high surface area to volume ratio and high surface energy which makes them suitable material for adsorbents, catalysis, drug delivery etc. However, their synthesis by chemical methods not only makes the process hazardous but also energy intensive and expensive due to utilization of chemical precursors. Therefore, the recovery of nanomaterial from the industrial waste product like fly ash reduces the cost of the product and overall expenditure of the process. Fly ash naturally have nanostructured materials like cenospheres, ferrospheres, plerospheres and carbonaceous nanomaterials which can be recovered and applied for various applications where purity is not a priority.

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