Reflective Teaching and Technology Integration in Management Education

Reflective Teaching and Technology Integration in Management Education

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5345-9.ch024
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Reflective practice supports critical thinking and assessment skills through analyzing one's own life experiences, and the role of reflection in learning is well reckoned. Reflective practice, the habit of looking back and analyzing one's own life experiences, is a process that supports learning and develops critical thinking skills. The role of reflection in learning has been recognized for decades and the reflective observation learning style may provide an important means of deepening student understanding and engagement especially with better technology integration. Many management educators recommend reflective practice for managerial and professional development as learning to reflect is a key element in mastering the important management skill of self-awareness and developing management competencies. Adopting a mixed method qualitative approach, the aim of this chapter is to delve on the current scenario of the reflective practices and technology integration in management education.
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Reflective teaching and learning practices have been leading meaningful educational change for many years (Dewey, 1933; Schöen, 1983; Loughran, 1996; Mezirow, 1990; Ross, 1989; Langer, 1997). In Experience and Education,Dewey (1998) stated that: “To reflect is to look back over what has been done so as to extract the net meanings which are the capital stock for intelligent dealing with further experiences. It is the heart of intellectual organization and of the disciplined mind” (p. 110). In the act of looking back, the individual examines what “has been experienced, and recreates the events, emotions, and happenings of the situation” (Lowery, 2003, p.23) in order to deal effectively with future experiences. Reed and Bergenann (2001) state, “Reflective people continue the introspective process while they are actively pursuing information and clarification. Reflection is not difficult. Often it merely requires answering simple questions: What did I do? How do I feel? Why do I feel that way? What was the best thing that happened? Were there any things I could have done better? What would I do differently if I could do it again?” (p. 9).

Jacobs, Vakalisa and Gawe (2011) contend that reflective practice offers the opportunity to renew the teaching practice and to understand the effects of their teaching. It also provides information on how teachers connect with learners meaningfully thus promoting sound teaching and learning practice. Akbari (2007) suggests that reflective practice will make teachers question clichés acquired during formative years and thus, also enable them to develop more informed practice. Yang (2009) indicates that critical reflection does not come naturally to many, therefore appropriate opportunities for reflection should be provided. This suggests that reflectivity is a skill that needs to be acquired by learning and not by automatic occurrence. By adopting reflective practices, the educator imparts inspiration among learners, so as to enable them to practice the same in their profession. Reflection then connects new learning experiences to previous learning and, ideally, results in the transformation of information into meaningful knowledge. “Reflection is seen as a process of reconstructing classroom enactments, including both cognitive and affective dimensions” and “to learn from reflection on experience” (Lowery, 2003, p. 23). This is reflection-on-action (Schon, 1983) or guided reflection and it leads to “greater student achievement and success in the classroom. Benefits from reflective teaching include increases in confidence, autonomy, and self-efficacy for teachers…students benefit by reflecting on their own learning to make sense” (Lowery, 2003, p. 29) of their discipline.

Research has been conducted on reflective teaching as an essential part in teachers’ professional development, (Griffiths 2000; Akbari 2007; Killen 2007; Jacobs, 2011). Little has been done to investigate student reflective experiences. Griffiths (2000) argues that reflection is taken for granted rather than being made explicit. There is an assumption that leaners will automatically reflect on their practices. Adopting a mixed method qualitative approach, the aim of this chapter is to delve on the current scenario of the reflective practices and technology integration in management education. In doing so, this research study hopes to contribute on the discourse on reflective practice and technology integration in management education programme. It also aims at suggesting strategies that could assist management students to become reflective managers.


Literature Review

Teachers have assisted learners to reflect through the use of student journals, individual and group feedback sessions, case analyses, and other activities (Sparks-Langer and Colton, 1991). One example of this is the use of question prompts and teacher affirmations such as “Why do you think that happens?” and “You can learn from what doesn’t work for you.” (Canning, 1991, p. 19).

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