Reforming of the State Immigration Policy in the Context of Globalization: On the Example of Russia

Reforming of the State Immigration Policy in the Context of Globalization: On the Example of Russia

Denis Ushakov (International College Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand & Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration–South, Russia) and Eteri Rubinskaya (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration – South, Russia)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3856-1.ch012
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Abstract

International labor migration in a globalized context offers alternative ways to overcome the problems of slow economic growth or identification of additional levers of economic progress along with forcing the states or the whole supranational units to urgently search for the instruments to confront new economic, humanitarian and political challenges and threats. Migration policy must become an effective tool in nationalization of economic benefits of international labor migration and combating its possible negative effects, especially critical for the Russian Federation, which at the beginning of the 21st century has become a global center of gravity and attraction for international migrant workers. This study reveals the importance and the stimulating role of migration policy in fostering national competitiveness, demonstrating the conditions of its key tools effectiveness for the implementation in economic and social globalization dynamics. In the case of Russia, the paper evaluates the historical background of migration policy reform and suggests directions of its modernization in the short and the long run. As a result of the analysis of Russian state migration policy further development trends under economy modernization have been revealed, special emphasis is put on the selective nature of immigration policy along with the need for highly skilled professionals' attraction.
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Introduction

The globalization of labor market since the end of the 20th century has become the most important determinant of world economic dynamics, the factor of transformation of state economic regulation, the world labor division system formation, as well as enhancing foreign economic integration efficiency infrastructure and building up national competitiveness.

The relevance of the presented research is defined as follows:

  • Firstly, by the need to analyze the directions and intensity of the impact of international labor migration on macroeconomic systems; determine migration processes development patterns in world regions, assess the pace and describe instruments of the global reform in immigration regulation;

  • Secondly, by the importance of studying world experience in development and implementation of national migration policies, emphasizing its domestic and foreign economic priorities and monitoring performance indicators;

  • Thirdly, by the integrity of the national migration policy modernization in Russia, which in the early twentieth century has become a world leader in the number of international migrants (according to the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Report, in 2014 the Russian Federation hosted the second largest number of migrants after the USA – over 11 million) and faced a range of problems of inefficient migration regulation – from economic stagnation to the growth of xenophobic sentiments in the society;

  • Fourthly, by the priority of effective immigration policy in the structure of the strategic initiatives of the Russian authorities (Chapter 9 of the Concept of long-term socioeconomic development of Russia until 2020, Strategy 2020) in view of the prospects of using the migration stock as an additional resource for economic growth (especially intensive and innovation-based), along with overcoming the consequences of the demographic dynamics of the 1990s and implementation of Russia’s foreign policy interests in the post-Soviet space.

The research objective is to determine the principles of state participation in international migration processes able to ensure qualitative growth of the economic system in the long run, based on modern instruments of international labor migration regulation effectiveness analysis.

Achieving the above objective assumes a specific logical sequence of tasks to be accomplished:

  • To determine major patterns of relationship between globalization and international labor migration, to assess the latter from the position of inevitability of labor markets integration;

  • To trace the dynamics of reforms in the area of migration regulation across the world countries;

  • To analyze historic and contemporary background and the factors contributing to effective migration policy implementation in Russia;

  • To assess labor migration as a resource for economic growth and Russia’s political influence expansion, and as a factor triggering its interregional and intersectoral imbalances and socioeconomic tribalization;

  • To offer directions for modernization of Russian system of migration regulation based on the principles of adequacy, multi-vector nature, selectivity, and dynamic efficiency.

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Literature Overview

National migration policy, its structure, mechanisms and strategic guidelines implementation are the result from interaction between the two principles of social development – the principle of humanism and pragmatism. Manifesting itself to a greater or lesser extent in different historical periods and national economic development stages, these principles lay the foundations for whole-of-government approach to migration management. Modern theoretical concepts provide further insights to the essence of national migration policy within the pragmatism – humanism paradigm.

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