Relationship Among Intelligence, Achievement Motivation, Type of School, and Academic Performance of Kenyan Urban Primary School Pupils

Relationship Among Intelligence, Achievement Motivation, Type of School, and Academic Performance of Kenyan Urban Primary School Pupils

Jessina Mukomunene Muthee (Kenyatta University, Kenya) and Catherine G. Murungi (Kenyatta University, Kenya)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch133
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Abstract

This chapter determines the extent to which primary school academic performance was influenced by the criterion variables. Two hundred pupils male and female of age 12 and 14.5years from both public and private primary schools in Nairobi city participated in the study. Multiple regression and t-test were used for data analysis. The results revealed that three independent variables; intelligence, achievement, motivation and type of school jointly and significantly contributed to the prediction of academic achievement of the urban primary school pupils. (R = 0.693, P < .01). In terms of magnitude of contribution, intelligence turned out to be the most significant predictor (Beta = .445, t = 7.503, P< .01) followed by achievement motivation (beta = 0.282, t – 5.042, P< .01) and type of school (Beta = 0.208, t = 3.615, P < .01). The results of t – test revealed that students from private schools differ significantly from students of public schools in academic achievement and intelligence but not in terms of achievement motivation.
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Introduction

In Kenya and many other countries examinations have been accepted as an important part of the education system. Examinations have also been used as basis for judging students ability and means of selection for educational advancement and employment.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Type of School: In Kenya there are two types of schools. The government sponsored schools (public schools) and the private owned schools (private schools). In this study both public and private primary schools participated in the study. Primary school level: this is the elementary level school, it houses pupils of ages ranging from seven to sixteen years. In this study pupil’s in the age range of eleven years to fourteen under half years participated in the study. These learners are expected to be in standard eight class in Kenyan primary schools.

Motivation: The expression ‘motivation’ in the present study refers to the persons aroused desire for participation in the learning process and perform at high level of competence. This construct was operationalised using an achievement motivation inventory constructed by the present inesigators (Muthee, murungi and Thomas, 2009 AU55: The in-text citation &quot;Thomas, 2009&quot; is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ) The tool measured four different aspects related to academic motivation, viz., (1) motivation for achievement (2) inner resources of the learner (3) interpersonal strengths in learners and (4) work habits.

Intelligence: The term ‘intelligence’ as used in the context of the present study refers to cognitive abilities. This construct was operationalised using standard progressive matrices, which was developed by Raven’s (1938) AU53: The in-text citation &quot;Raven&#x2019;s (1938)&quot; is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. to test people’s ability for observation and clear thinking. It measures a person’s ability to form perceptual relations and to reason by analogy. The test can be administered to any individual in the age range of 6yearsand above irrespective of language and schooling. The total score indicates an individual’s intellectual capacity regardless of his or her level of education. AU54: Reference appears to be out of alphabetical order. Please check

Academic Performance: As used in the contest of this chapter, the expression academic performance refers to the percentage of marks obtained by the pupils on each of the five compulsory subjects after two terms of study in standard eight class. The overall percentage on five subjects was calculated from this information. Information forms containing columns to enter total marks obtained by the students and the maximum marks on each of the five compulsory subjects were used for the purpose. This information was provided by the school authorities.

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