Remediation of Bauxite Residue Through Integrated Approach of Microbes and Plantation: A Case Study

Remediation of Bauxite Residue Through Integrated Approach of Microbes and Plantation: A Case Study

Kumud Dubey, K. P. Dubey
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7062-3.ch018
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Bauxite residue (red mud) is an industrial waste bye product of Alumina industry. It is toxic and highly alkaline in nature having heavy metals. Its disposal is the paramount environmental issue in Alumina industry. In the present study, bioremediation of red mud was carried out through cyanobacteria amendments and plantation. Two cyanobacterial species (viz. Phormidium and Oscillatoria) were found promising after studying their effect on physico-chemical characteristics of red mud. Seeds of selected tree species (viz. Dalbergia sissoo, Prosopis juliflora, Acacia auriculiformis, Pithecellobium dulce, Cassia siamia) were procured, and a nursery of these tree species was raised. Performances of two cyanobacteria (viz. Phormidium and Oscillatoria sps.) in combinations with PSB and VAM on red mud are very encouraging and hold considerable promise for bioremediation and revegetation of red mud. Inoculated seedlings of P. juliflora, P. dulce, A. auriculiformis, and C. siamia performed well for red mud revegetation.
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Site Survey and Sample Collection

M/s Hindalco Industries Ltd. (HINDALCo), UP, India, was chosen for study as it is the only Aluminium production industry functioning in Uttar Pradesh, India. The company is situated at Renukoot, Sonbhadra District of Uttar Pradesh. HINDALCo was visited for surveying Red Mud production site with consent of HINDALCo authorities. HINDALCo dumps red mud after carrying out a drying process, called ‘Dry Stacking of Red Mud’ (Dubey and Dubey, 2011; Dubey, 2012).

Red Mud Sample Collection and Analysis

Three samples of red mud were collected randomly from red mud dumping site and sample for analysis was prepared by carefully mixing of all three samples (Dubey and Dubey, 2011; Dubey, 2012). The sample was analyzed for pH, conductivity, available nitrogen and organic matter as the methods described by Piper (1944).

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