Rendering and Video Games

Rendering and Video Games

Francisco V. Cipolla-Ficarra (Latin Association of Human-Computer Interaction, Spain & International Association of Interactive Communication, Italy), Jacqueline Alma (Electronic Arts, Canada) and Miguel Cipolla-Ficarra (International Association of Interactive Communication, Italy)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2616-2.ch017
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Abstract

We present a study of the triad rendering computer made static and/or dynamic images, video games and adult users who interact with a personal computer. Besides, there is a diachronic study of the basic components to design the virtual 3D characters which are included in the video games. The link of the evolution of the interactive games is also analyzed and especially the interactive design characteristics related to the content, navigation, structure and layout. Finally, a table is presented with those components stemming from the rendering of the scenes for the video games, which motivate their fruition by the adult users.
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Rendering: Static And Dynamic Frame

Traditionally, rendering is regarded as the process of generating a static image (frame) or dynamic (a set of frames) in a video format through the calculation of the lightening of the components in a 3D and/or 2D (Cipolla-Ficarra, 1996). In other words, generating an image from the mathematical description of the scene in the scene 3D and/or 2D, through algorithms which define the color in each pixel of the digital image. The description refers to a set of data related to the geometry 2D and/or 3D from the point of view of the observer, the optical characteristics of the surfaces, visible to the observer, illumination, etc. (Newman & Sproull, 1979: Soh & Tan, 2008; Furtado, Santos, & Ramalho, 2011). The term calculation implies mathematic equations for the simulation and emulation of reality, in natural weather phenomena such as fog, snow, rain, and so on which are included in the static or dynamic image. The mathematics used for the rendering includes: the Montecarlo method, lineal algebra, calculation and numerical analysis, the digital analysis of signals, etc. The set of algorithms make up what is colloquially known in computer graphics as “the engine” of the rendering. Generally, in relation to the engine a commercial software is capable of making the calculation of the illumination, for instance, in more or less time. Aside from the hardware used, the final quality of the static and/or dynamic images depends on them, with a high final quality, which makes currently the users of interactive systems unable to tell apart quickly a digital photograph of reality or an image made through geometric objects in 2D or 3D in the computer. Now at the end of the 20th century, when in the stage previous to the definitive creation of the scenes were completed (representation, wireframe), the stage called rendering (Newman & Sproull, 1979), that is, were included the texture bitmap, lights, bump mapping, and so on giving as a result a final image or frame. In the case of the computer animations, with cinematographic purposes or not, there was a high number of frames.

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