Research Methodology, Questionnaire, Sampling, Data Analysis Techniques

Research Methodology, Questionnaire, Sampling, Data Analysis Techniques

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8413-1.ch004
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The previous chapter developed the research model and hypotheses. This chapter now explains the methodology. It gives more information on the research variables, including the independent, dependent, and moderator variables, and discusses the research sample size and sampling frame, together with the justification for choice of sampling technique. It describes the pilot study and reports on the reliability of the scales chosen. It explains the data collection procedure for the main study, including activities related to the administration of the research questionnaire and communication with the target companies, and provides details of the number of responses received from each company and the response rate. It also covers ethical considerations, including the actions taken to maintain the respondents' anonymity and protect data from unauthorized use.
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Research Design

This research aims to answer two questions about the relationship of organizational culture type with components of organizational excellence, and to discover how ICT use moderates these relationships, via 25 hypotheses. The logical nature of this study required the use of a quantitative applied research approach, because it focuses on analyzing and evaluating several variables, as well as exploring their relationships. The quantitative approach allows comparisons between the cultures of several organizations (Cameron & Quinn, 2005), using a numerical analysis to provide an in-depth understanding of the information, theories, and concepts related to the research questions and hypotheses. Responses were coded to facilitate the use of statistical methods of analysis to compare different variables related to organizational culture and business excellence. Quantitative methods also have demonstrated validity and reliability, unlike qualitative methods, which focus on developing themes and interpreting data (Bhattacherjee, 2012).

Independent Variables

The four organizational culture types were the independent variables in this research. This approach enabled more focus on each culture type, to generate detailed and insightful conclusions. Figure 1 shows the independent variables in this study.

Figure 1.

Independent variables in this study


Dependent Variables

The EFQM organizational excellence results criteria were used as dependent variables (see Figure 2).

Figure 2.

Dependent variables used in the study


Population And Sample

The sample population is companies in the UAE who have demonstrated a high level of organizational excellence. The parameter used to identify these companies was excellence awards, and particularly, previous winners. There are several quality and business excellence awards in the UAE. Some accept applications only from the government or private sector, and a few are open to both. This study targeted awards that accept applications from both private and government sectors, because this was expected to provide more realistic and generalizable results. There are only two awards that satisfy these criteria, the Dubai Quality Award (DQA) and the Sheikh Khalifa Excellence Award (SKEA) (“DQA,” 2015, “SKEA,” 2015).

The criteria for each award were examined to assess their links to the EFQM model, because this model is well-established worldwide and includes tested and verified assessment tools (EFQM, 2013). The SKEA uses the EFQM model criteria without any modification, and is also a representative of the EFQM in UAE (“SKEA,” 2015). The DQA had modified some of the EFQM model criteria. This study therefore targeted SKEA winners.

Within the SKEA, there are different categories of success, from letters of appreciation through silver and gold awards, to the top level, diamond awards. Since this research targets excellent companies, the study focused on diamond and gold winners. It also targeted only winners from the last three cycles to avoid uncertainty about the current state of the company, and whether it has maintained its level of excellence. In total, this gave 31 organizations, and a convenience sampling technique was used to select nine as a sampling frame that included a mix of governmental and private organizations, service and manufacturing companies, and small and larger organizations.

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