Research Methodology: Design, Method, and Techniques

Research Methodology: Design, Method, and Techniques

Naresh A. Babariya (Sanjaybhai Rajguru College of Diploma Engineering, India) and Alka V. Gohel (Darshan Institute of Engineering and Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1697-2.ch004


The most important of research methodology in research study it is necessary for a researcher to design a methodology for the problem chosen and systematically solves the problem. Formulation of the research problem is to decide on a broad subject area on which has thorough knowledge and second important responsibility in research is to compare findings, it is literature review plays an extremely important role. The literature review is part of the research process and makes a valuable contribution to almost every operational step. A good research design provides information concerning with the selection of the sample population treatments and controls to be imposed and research work cannot be undertaken without sampling. Collecting the data and create data structure as a organizing the data, analysing the data help of different statistical method, summarizing the analysis and using these results for making judgements, decisions and predictions.
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Research procedures can be used to documents practice, to monitor activities, to ensure quality and to assess cost effectiveness. Through research, associations can be observed, hypothesis tested, programs compared, and protocols evaluated. Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable. Scientific methods consist of systematic observation, classification and interpretation of data. Research plays two roles first it contributes to the general fund of knowledge, and second it helps solve many complex problems of the society. Research is therefore often classified as pure and applied. Thus while pure research advances the frontiers of knowledge, applied research uses this knowledge to solve varied social, economic, technological and other problems of the society.

Formulating the Problem

The research problem is stated in a few sentences, and commonly used sentences for the statement of problem include the following: ‘the purpose of the study will be’, ‘this study will be conducted to’, and ‘the problem to be investigated through this study.’ This section gives the proposal direction (Creswell, 2012). The formulation of a research problem is the first and most important step of the research process. It is like the identification of a destination before undertaking a journey. In the absence of a destination, it is impossible to identify the shortest or indeed any route. The formulation of research problems also has an important social function. The first step in the formulation of the research problem is to decide on a broad subject area on which has thorough knowledge. Knowledge in that particular subject area will enable you to decide about the research problem. Formulation of the problem means defining the problem precisely. In other words, a problems well defined is half solved. In operations research, we say that formulation of problem is often more essential than its solution because then the problem is formulated, an appropriate technique can be applied to generate alternative solutions. Choosing the best alternative is the best decision under the given circumstances. Steps involved in defining a problem are:

  • Stating problem in a general way.

  • Understanding the nature of problem.

  • Surveying available literature & past studies.

  • Developing Ideas through discussion.

  • Rephrasing the research problem into a working position.

According to Albert Einstein, “The mere formulation of a problem is far more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, a new possibility, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science”.


When the problem and the purposes statement have been properly outlined in the statement of problem, the reader can develop an overall idea about the study. The objective of research is to discover answers to questions by applying scientific procedures. In the other words, the main aim of research is to find our truth which is hidden and has not yet been discovered. Although every research study has its own specific objectives, research objectives may be broadly grouped as follows:

  • To gain familiarity with or new insights into a phenomenon (i.e., formulative research studies);

  • To accurately portray the characteristics of a particular individual, group, or a situation (i.e., descriptive research studies);

  • To analyse the frequency with which something occurs (i.e., diagnostic research studies); and

  • To examine a hypothesis of a causal relationship between two variables (i.e., hypothesis-testing research studies).

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