Research Methodology

Research Methodology

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2277-5.ch003
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3.2 Questionnaires And Pilot Tests

Questionnaires adopted in this research are popularly used and widely accepted globally to guarantee the validity and reliability of the survey results. As questionnaires have been developed by western scholars based on the western cultures, in order to secure its adaptability and validity in Chinese cultural background, rigid procedures have been implemented. First of all, specialized experts have been invited to translate the questionnaires into Chinese and the transcripts have been compared and discrepancies have been pointed out for discussions of several rounds until all the variances have been solved and mutual agreement achieved. Then the transcripts have been again back-translated, compared, discrepancies discussed and consensus reached. Items which are not fully understood in the questionnaire have been discussed with the designers of the questionnaire through emails and face-to-face discussions before final version has been settled. After that, a small population of 35 samples has been summoned to do the pilot test with careful attention of the wordings and understanding in the questionnaire. The participants in the pilot test have been asked to raise questions of any kind relevant to the questionnaires, and then the questions have been collected; categorized and summarized for experts to have further and deeper discussions until there is no misunderstanding and ambiguity in the questionnaires. Then, large size of the questionnaires has been printed for large scale survey.

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