Research on First Mini Solar Power Plants to Produce Electric Power on the South Serbia

Research on First Mini Solar Power Plants to Produce Electric Power on the South Serbia

Mihailo Mitković (Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Niš, Serbia), Jelena Đekić (Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Niš, Serbia), Petar Mitković (Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Niš, Serbia) and Milica Igić (Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Niš, Serbia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9932-6.ch014

Abstract

The solar radiation and energy potential in Serbia is 30% higher than in Central Europe, and the intensity of solar radiation is among the highest in Europe. Specifically suitable are the condition for usage of solar energy in southeast Serbia where the annual average of global radiation on a horizontal surface amounts to more than 4.2 kWh/m2 a day. This chapter discusses four photovoltaic solar power plants, two having been installed in the territory of the city of Leskovac and two in the Bosilegrad territory. The research is based on geographical location of solar power plants, orientation, and inclination of the panels in respect to the horizontal surface. All the processed solar power plants have the capacity 30-40 kW. The chapter is projection of two years of researching and measuring data on the initial investments in order reach profitability and investment return period. The solar power plants that have fitted angle of 33° (Fortuna) give higher production of electric power than in those panels that have angle inclination of 10° (Domit).
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Solar Potential Serbia

As for the solar energy, Serbia has the resources which are well above the European average, along with the extremely favourable seasonal distribution. The energy potential of solar radiation is for around 30% higher in Serbia than in Central Europe, and the intensity of solar radiation is among the highest in Europe. The average solar energy of global radiation on the flat surface during the winter season ranges between 1.1 kWh/m2 in the north of the country and 1.7 kWh/m2 in the south, and during the summer season between 5.4 kWh/m2in the north and 6.9 kWh/m2 in the south (Figures 1a, b, c).

Figure 1.

Average energy of global radiation on the horizontal surface (kWh/m2): a) in January; b) in July; c) annual average

978-1-5225-9932-6.ch014.f01
(Institute for interdisciplinary research, 2004)

For comparison, average value of global radiation for the German territory is around 1,000 kWh/m2, while the average value of global solar radiation energy in Serbia ranges between 1,200 kWh/m2 a year in the north-west and 1,550 kWh/m2 in the southeast, while in the central area it is around 1,400 kWh/m2 a year. The highest value of annual sum of global solar radiation in Germany (1,130-1,240kWh/m2), coincides with the lowest vale in the north of Serbia (<1,240 kWh/m2) (Pavlović, et al. 2011; Stamenić 2009).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Electric Generators: Devices in which the occurrence of electromagnetic induction is used to obtain alternating current and voltage.

Environment: The environment or the human environment represents everything that surrounds us, that is, everything that directly or indirectly relates to human life and productive activity.

Global Radiation: Represents the sum of direct solar radiation and diffuse radiation resulting from reflected or dispersed sunlight.

Region of Southeast Serbia: Administrative region in Serbia, which are includes: ethnological, linguistic, geographic, and other characteristics.

Renewable Energy: Energy that is generated from renewable sources, which are wind, sunlight, tides, rain, geothermal heat.

Energy Efficiency: Energy efficiency is the sum of measures and actions in all areas of life whose ultimate goal is minimal energy consumption, provided that the level of work and life remains the same or improves.

Solar Power Plant: The system which converts sunlight into electricity.

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