Research Tools and Methods for the Analysis of Microbiota in Dairy Products

Research Tools and Methods for the Analysis of Microbiota in Dairy Products

Sylvia Klaubauf (Dutch DNA Biotech, The Netherlands) and Frank J. J. Segers (Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, The Netherlands)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 31
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5363-2.ch002

Abstract

Microorganisms play important roles in dairy products. They can be a source of spoilage, or they promote health or cause diseases. In dairy fermentations, microorganisms are of great importance due to their function as starter cultures and during the production process of dairy products. In order to better understand and improve the process, it is essential to identify the species that are involved and to monitor the development of microbial communities. There are several different approaches for the detection and analysis of the microbiota. The methods can be culture dependent and, for example, make use of morphological and physiological characters or DNA sequencing. Culture-independent methods include direct PCR and qPCR, but also electrophoresis-based profiling techniques as well as metagenomics. Descriptions of relevant methods are provided and their applications are discussed in this chapter.
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Sampling And Sample Preparation

Any analysis starts with taking a sample of the product. Sampling is a crucial step and there are several considerations that should be taken into account.

Samples should be taken aseptically and stored in sterile containers, preferably analysed immediately, or kept under appropriate storage conditions until further treatment. Employing good hygienic practices is important in order to avoid contamination and transfer from gloves and utensils.

If food spoilage is the reason of sampling, control (non-spoiled or normal) samples should be analysed at the same time and the results compared to those obtained from spoiled products.

For certified institutions, international standards for sampling and procedures for analysis can be followed. For example, ISO 707:2008 or ISO 6887-5:2010 contain specific guidelines for sampling and preparation of milk and milk products.

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