Resilience of Urban Infrastructure in Latin American Cities

Resilience of Urban Infrastructure in Latin American Cities

Hugo Alatrista-Salas (Universidad del Pacífico, Peru), Manuel Rodriguez-López (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru) and Miguel Nunez-del-Prado (Universidad del Pacífico, Peru)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8160-4.ch019
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Abstract

Resilience is the capacity of a society or infrastructure to resist, adapt, and recover after being impacted by an extreme event. In this chapter, the authors focus on measuring how much the road infrastructure is able to withstand the appearance of extreme events. An extreme event will be represented by an intentional (e.g., perpetrated attacks) or unintentional (e.g., as result of climate extreme event) damage on the routes or intersections of the road network within a city. To do this, the authors measure the primary characteristics of urban networks in order to understand their morphology (i.e., the way in which they were constructed). Then, they evaluated the resistance capacity of different points of the road networks with three types of attacks: random, directed, and localized. The first results of this study show the fragility of some roads and intersections before the appearance of extreme phenomena. These results can be exploited by those in charge of public management and then converted into policies.
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Background

Resilience is a concept of positive connotation. This term was used a hundred years ago as an indicator that allowed measuring the invulnerability or invincibility of infants, as an individual entity, as part of a family, or collectively or culturally (Glantz & Johnson, 2002). Later, other works in the literature reference to resilience as the possibility of intervention, prevention and positive adaptation to recover the vulnerabilities of individuals at risk. Other works related to resilience focuses on how to correct the vulnerability of a society and its infrastructure. For example, (McLellan et al., 2012) and (Eldosouky et al., 2017) assess the risk of global warming affecting critical infrastructures. (Meyer et al., 2018) (Godschalk, 2003) and (Kao et al., 2017) analyze repeated disturbances and focus on assessing the possibility of failure of a system facing a disaster. Also, Duijnhoven et al. (2014) and Marchant & Stevens (2017) conceive resilience as the capacity for mitigation, adaptation and recovery of a social or environmental structure affected by extreme climate changes.

In developed countries, resilience is used as an instrument to measure society's risk face to an adverse phenomenon, to prevent or intercept threats before they appear.

In the United States, there are organizations such as The National Academy of Sciences NAS, and the U.S. Global Change Research Program. These organisms offer a framework to analyze extreme events caused by a climatic phenomenon. They propose a sequence of systematized steps to discover and to document climate hazards. Then, they propose viable actions to reduce risks. These steps include measuring the initial damage caused, monitoring the recovery process, and assessing the existence of irreparable permanent damage. However, it is also possible to restore the initial state and improve the conditions to face similar disturbing events in the future.

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