Review on Recent Applications of Internet of Flying Things

Review on Recent Applications of Internet of Flying Things

Vanitha Veerasamy, Rajathi Natarajan
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-3610-3.ch007
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), typically known as drones, are aerial machines that can be programmed and controlled remotely using mobile devices and are connected via wireless communication technology. Because of their ease of deployment, dynamic configuration, low maintenance costs, high mobility, and faster reaction, they are becoming more widely used in a variety of applications. As a result, a new paradigm known as flying ad hoc networks (FANETs) has emerged, which is a subset of mobile ad hoc networks with special aviation-related properties. FANET ideas have been combined with the internet of things (IoT), resulting in the internet of flying things (IoFT), a paradigm that enables a significant new level of applications, solves existing challenges in UAVs and IoT, and broadens the spectrum of potential uses. This study focuses on various IoFT applications and challenges in IoFT implementation.
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Overview Of Internet Of Flying Things

The IoFT is an emerging area having wide variety of application possibilities. On the Internet of Things, the UAV is a critical component. The following section explains about UAV, multiple-UAV systems, FANETs, and IoFT in detail.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

The rapid technological advancement in the communication technologies, avionics and micro electromechanical system has paved the path to new UAV systems. UAV is also known as Drone, is a flying vehicle or an aircraft. UAVs can fly autonomously with the help of on-board computer and usually without human or it can also be operated remotely by a human operator (Hassanalian & Abdelkefi, 2017). These UAVs are capable of flying a few thousands of kilometres and also capable of carrying lethal or nonlethal payloads. The UAVs are categorized into different types based on weight and range, landing, rotors etc. The classification of UAVs is shown in the figure 1.

The characteristics of UAVs include easy installation and relatively small operating expenses. The UAVs are used in a variety of situations where the presence of humans is difficult, impossible, or dangerous. They are capable for performing in both outdoor and indoor locations as well as in very challenging environments. UAVs are used in both military and civilian applications. In military, these UAVs provide an insight about the specific areas easily. UAVs mounted with specialized cameras are capable of providing quality images even about the dark areas. Small size micro UAVs are mainly used to investigate indoor areas. Micro UAVs are used to perform investigations inside the buildings. UAVs are also used for search and rescue operations, disaster monitoring, remote sensing, managing wildfire, base station for communication and traffic monitoring. They are also capable of performing missions in oceans or in other planets.

Figure 1.

Classification of UAV



Single-UAV system has some performance limitation. Instead of using single highly configured UAV, networking multiple simple UAVs has numerous advantages compared to single-UAV (Skorobogatov et al., 2020). Some of the advantages of multi-UAV system are:

  • Expenditure: Small size UAVs are cheaper compared larger one.

  • Scalability: Coverage of multi-UAV system is higher than single-UAV systems.

  • Survivability: Multi-UAV system continues to operate even if one or two UAV doesn’t work.

  • Speed: Collection of UAVs completes the task very quickly.

However, multi-UAV communication system has some drawbacks like: (i) UAVs need to be equipped with specialized devices to communicate with a ground base station or to a satellite system. (ii) UAVs may have intermittent communication link. (iii) UAVs have range restriction to communicate with the ground base station. To address these problems Flying Adhoc Network was proposed.

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