Role of Learning Technology Strategies Among People With Disabilities: A Job Opportunities Barrier

Role of Learning Technology Strategies Among People With Disabilities: A Job Opportunities Barrier

Heru Susanto, Hamizah Hamid, Fadzliwati Mohiddin, Desi Setiana
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7184-2.ch012
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Unemployment is the main problem within many countries, and it has been increasing in the past few years especially during pandemic COVID-19, not only concerning for fresh graduates but also for people with disabilities. This study is made to understand the factors leading to job opportunities among people with disabilities, which are education, training, job placement, and internship. The study also aims to find challenges and barriers to job opportunity among people with disabilities. It aims to create awareness regarding people with disabilities to be accepted in the society as differently abled persons with specialties. The study findings shows that there is correlation between education, training, job placement, and internship for both hiring and non-hiring companies. To conclude, research findings show that training and work placement experience are factors of job opportunity for people with disabilities. The main challenges or barriers are communication, attitudes, and perceptions of co-workers towards employees with disabilities.
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To be employed implies to participate in an occupation, a collaboration of working partner with others and a working identity. Individuals wanted to be acknowledged by others that in their own eyes and the eyes of others what they do is important. These aspects are perhaps much more important for people with disabilities, particularly when these individuals become a disadvantaged community in existing high demands for employment, accessibility and productivity (Baker & Jacobs, 2003, pp. 53 – 61). Person with disabilities do have a special place in the society as a motivation for all for their strength and courage as well as for their valuable contribution to the development of a dynamic, compassionate and inclusive society without racial discrimination (“Asia & the Pacific”, 2019). Government of Brunei Darussalam, through various agencies has been endlessly taking care of the welfare of individuals with different needs in other words people with disabilities (PWD) by maintaining through the provision of an unlimited and inclusive healthcare support facilities, integrated education system, better allocation of financial aid scheme, participation of different investors for the development of infrastructure and facilities that are friendly to people with disabilities (Hazair, 2018). Throughout the on-going commitment and succeeding the pledge, it has been arranged by the government of Brunei in organising an action plan for people with disabilities in addressing the issues related to people with disabilities, the former Minister of Culture, Youth and Sport announced at the opening ceremony of the 2016 International Day of PWD, “It is a policy document compromising concrete measures that need to be adopted by different organisations, departments and ministries who are members of the National Social Issues Council Special Committee. It is a platform for addressing issues of special needs through approaches from the entire government and society as a whole”. The former minister also expressed appreciation for the active participation of the organisations of the special needs in the country who work together alongside with the government of Brunei in increasing awareness and the standard of living of the special and unique people in particular by providing them the chance to participate in the society (Hazair, 2018).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Autism: Also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which includes in difficulties with communications and behaviour (“Autism Spectrum Disorder: MedlinePlus”, n.d.). People that is diagnosed with autism have difficulties in communicating and have trouble in understanding what other people think and feel (“Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children”, n.d.). Through the struggles that they encounter, it is hard for them to express themselves, either with speech, gestures, facial expressions and touch (Jeanne et al., 2019 AU57: The in-text citation "Jeanne et al., 2019" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ). People that is suspected with autism might have learning difficulty as their skills developed irregularly. For example; they could have hard time in communicating but be unusually good at art, music, mathematics which involves their memory, thus they might do well on test of analysis or problem solving.

Assistive Technology: Is assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for People with disability or the elderly population. People with disability often have difficulty performing activities of daily living (ADLs) independently, or even with assistance. ADLs are self-care activities that include toileting, mobility (ambulation), eating, bathing, dressing, grooming, and personal device care. Assistive technology can ameliorate the effects of disabilities that limit the ability to perform ADLs. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks.

People with Disabilities: All persons with disabilities including those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments which, in interaction with various attitudinal and environmental barriers, hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. However, this minimum list of persons who may claim protection under the Convention does not exhaust the categories of the disabilities which fall within the it nor intend to undermine or stand in the way of wider definition of disabilities under national law (such as persons with short-term disabilities). It is also important to note that a person with disabilities may be regarded as a person with a disability in one society or setting, but not in another, depending on the role that the person is assumed to take in his or her community. The perception and reality of disability also depend on the technologies, assistance, and services available, as well as on cultural considerations.

Awareness Training: Helps employees to understand risks and identify potential attacks they may encounter as they receive email and use the web. Awareness training also acquaints emplyees with best practices for avoiding risk.

Visual Impairment: Visual impairment is when they have the capacity to see a degree that creates difficulties which cannot be overcome by the use of spectacles, visual impairment is also known as vision loss. Some may also include those who have a significantly lower viewing ability because they do not have access to eye-glasses or contact lenses where they can’t help to improve their vision as well.

Hearing Impairment: Which known as loss either partial or absolute hearing capacity. Hearing loss can occur in one or both of the ears to cause hearing impairments. As for people with the disability condition, it can cause difficulties in terms on social interaction at work, particularly children which can restrict their ability to learn spoken languages. Same as deaf people, hearing impairment also use hearing aids or devices to help them in hearing but not all devices can fully help them to hear fully.

Deaf: Characterised as the lack of functional hearing and is dependent on visual or auditory communication. Visual contact involves sign languages, reading the lips, interpreting speech as well as reading and writing. Whereas hearing aids and tools provide visual means of communication.

Specific Learning Disability: A specific learning disability, usually affects students with a disability to listen, think, speak, write, spell or do mathematical calculations. This can be known as a slow learner or sloe development disabilities, they may have struggles with writing, reading or calculating but when they are guided carefully from basic they slowly able to read and write even their level are not up to their age.

Information Technology Apps for Learning: The Apps enable students to acquire lecture materials, take online quizzes or assessments, submit tutorials or assignments, view results, view course materials, see news and announcements, online interaction, anytime and anywhere without any geographical or time barriers. However, the key to effective apps -learning is not from its multimedia, design or user-friendliness, but on how the individuals are engaged by the content. Although the use of apps-learning provides notable benefits for students as a whole, the effectiveness of the use of the system depends on the level of acceptance and use of students. The goals of apps-learning will not be achieved if there is lag and resistance to the use of new technology. The process of implementing apps-learning in the institution might face several factors that constraints the effective use of apps-learning as a learning medium, such as infrastructure issues, the willingness and readiness of the institutions and students.

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