Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizosphere (PGPR) on Molecular Mechanisms Transporters Under Heavy Metal Stress

Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizosphere (PGPR) on Molecular Mechanisms Transporters Under Heavy Metal Stress

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9016-3.ch006

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors discuss the molecular mechanisms transporters used for the removal of heavy metals contaminants from soil and water. The bioremediation method used for soil remediation render the land useless as a medium for plant growth as they also remove other contaminants that harm microbes and maintaining soil fertility with the help generating heat shok protein and metallothiones and also molecular transporters.
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Plant Growth Promoting Rhizosphere

Rhizobium leguminosarum of different strains was showed Cd tolerant and increased the levels of glutathione which indicating about tripeptide allows bacterium to deal under heavy metals stress rather than efflux systems activate (Ma et al., 2013). Metal toxicity occured in cell or plant organs at that condition important glutathione antioxidant generate to protect against stress. Apart from other mechanism plants also dealing with toxic metals which involve polyphosphates and long chains of thiophosphates for metals sequester (Lv et al., 2012). Biofilm formation from E.coli under nickel stress which may serve as as tolerance mechanism and involved in adherence by inducing genes encoding curli in transcription (Carpene et al., 2007). Root associated bacteria suggests EPS protective mechanism for specific bacteria might be replace the process of root zones with synthetic cross-linked polyacrylates and production of hydrogels to safe roots from harm metal toxicity (Blaylock et al., 1997). A recent study about proteomics that the “presence of a rhizosphere microbial population, adapted to heavy metal-polluted sites and enhanced the accumulation of metals in shoot of the hyperaccumualtor Arabidopsis halleri. The algae present in aquatic environment that may interact with microbes to remove contaminants from the environment. Artifically system generated by dried mixture of algae with bacteria to remove contaminants from water and soil (Loutseti et al., 2009). Combination of Ralstonia basilensis bacteria and microalga chlorella sorokiniana were successfully adsorption of Cd, Ni, Cu and Zn (Ma et al., 2013).

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