Role of Rhizoremediation in Decontaminating Some Hazardous Pollutants

Role of Rhizoremediation in Decontaminating Some Hazardous Pollutants

Hossein Farraji (University Saiens Malaysia, Malaysia), Nastaein Qamaruz Zaman (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia), Mohammad Ali Zahed (Kharazmi University, Iran) and Hamed Faraji (Islamic Azad University – Shiraz, Iran)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 34
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2325-3.ch009
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Rhizoremediation is a natural biological base, multifactorial operation treatment method which highly depends to environmental factors especially in terrestrial environment as operation of remediation process. Interaction and relationship between microbial community and plant roots is specific attraction and advantages of this advanced treatment method. Decontamination efficiency and time could be highly manageable by operation and rhizoaugmentation. Rhizoremediation is advanced compact combination of phytoextraction, phytovolatilization, phytotransformation and phytostabilization. High efficiency of pollutants removal, adaptive and wide range of operation and augmentation factors cause of emerging application of this for biodegradable organic compounds and heavy metals. Selection of suitable plant and joining them with comfortable microbial couples is a function which can plane simultaneously removal system. This chapter will present an overview on PAH, TPH, PCB and heavy metal removal and mechanism of decontamination, plant selection and augmentation process.
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Conceptual Overview Of Rhizoremediation

Rhizoremediation is a specific phytoremediation which rhizosphere of plants drive main action on remediation of contaminations by preparing suitable condition for especial microorganisms. Knowledge triangle of bioremediation could be arranged by efficiency of removal as: natural attenuation < phytoremediation < rhizoremediation (Prasad, M. N. V., & Prasad, R., 2012). Figure 1 illustrate rhizoremediation as microbial augmented phytoremediation and phytoremediation. Soil is the media that rhizoremediation carried out there and the main contaminants which degraded through the rhizoremediation are organic compound. High hydrophobicity of organic compounds is the major limitation that prohibits their entrance to plants. The main mode of the remediation body in rhizoremediation are not plants, meanwhile, bacteria are the practical, active organs which do the remediation process. Plants are solar-powered pump for microorganisms to arranging contaminant degradation. These cooperation cause to production of suitable substrates for microorganisms and performing pollutants. In fact, microbial community in symbiotic life with root of plant species could be considered as effective combination of living organisms for enhancing the process of contaminated media. Amino acid, sugar and organic acid supplied by plants for microbial community and numerous promoting reaction will present by microbes as consequence of living activities. The most important and well-recognized reactions related to microbial rhizosphere are:

Key Terms in this Chapter

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH): Toxic organic compounds with hazardous effect on aquatic, air and terrestrial environment.

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB): A chlorine organic compound which used in electrical apparatus as coolant fluid.

2, 4, 5-Trichlorophenol (TCP): Specific herbicide, insecticide or even fungicide with chlorinated structural.

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): A commercial insecticide with high environmental impact.

Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH): Hazardous pollution mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.

Trichloroethylene (TCE): It is a hazardous compound which could be found in hazardous waste sites and industrial section with toxic effect after breath, eat, drink or even touch the contaminated air, food or water.

Hyperaccumulator Plant Species (HPS): The plants which can grow and absorb high concentration of pollutants (metallic elements) in extremely polluted media.

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): Soil bacteria living on/around the root of plants.

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