SDSS Based on GIS

SDSS Based on GIS

Vilém Pechanec (Palacký University, Czech Republic)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch720
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Abstract

In recent years, the GIS is increasingly understood as a means used to support decision-making and recognizes as the basis for the SDSS. Generally it attach two basic role in the process of decision support: a) GIS is used for better decision support, because it helps to collect, organize, analyze and properly visualize data that the user uses the solution to the problem. The decision on the appropriateness of solutions can be used modeling alternative scenarios and then compare their critical parameters. b) GIS is widely used in solving specific problems SDSS, which are geared to location and allocation problems and highly applicable in the event of network analysis. For the application of GIS in the SDSS is specific that, in addition to building a data structure, which is the primary reason for deployment, significantly applied and specific methods for determining their own GIS technology.
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Backround

Decision Support Systems (DSS) enable application of analytical and scientific methods in decision-making process. DSS is as a group of programmes that support decision-making (Batty & Densham, 1996; Brail & Klosterman, 2001). Originally, these systems were intended for financial planning where they were to become means for making estimates and evaluation of hypothetical development scenarios. Using 6 attributes to identify DSS:

  • DSS are directly designed to solve problems difficult to structure;

  • They represent an efficient and user-friendly environment;

  • They are able to examine accessible solutions by creating alternatives;

  • They enable interactive and recursive solution;

  • They are able to flexibly combine analytical models and data;

  • The system uses more decision-making methods (Densham, 1991).

Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) are a special type of information system. There is no unambiguous and generally accepted definition because forms of technology have not been profiled yet (Brail & Klosterman, 2001). However, the majority of authors agree that it is a spatial expansion of DSS, or rather an integration of GIS and DSS (Densham, 1991; Eastman et al., 1995). Computer information systems that provide support for problems difficult to formulate and structure and cases when it is impossible to use a fully automated system are usually considered SDSS. SDSS are closely related to knowledge-based and expert systems whose creation was possible due to artificial intelligence. SDSS as a spatial expansion of DSS have four further attributes (Radke, 1995):

  • They provide a mechanism for entry of spatial data;

  • They enable representation of spatial relations and structures;

  • They include analytical means for spatial and geographical analyses;

  • They enable creation of spatial outputs, as well as maps.

Expert systems are computer programmes able to simulate actions of an expert in a particular field when solving complicated tasks. They are considered a sub-category of knowledge-bases systems (Brail & Klosterman, 2001). They are based on symbolic representation of knowledge and its implementation in an inference mechanism. Experts in the given field present the source of knowledge and procedures. These systems are able to justify solution procedures. They are used primarily for tasks difficult to structure and algorithmize, e.g. problems with recognition of situations, diagnosis of status, construction, planning, monitoring of status, corrections, management and decision-making. However, experience and intuition have to be part of the solution. Complete expert system is made of the following components (Poppere & Keleman, 1998): Basic component, which includes knowledge base, fact base and inference engine.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Constraints: A limit the alternatives under consideration. It can have only two logical values (yes / no) and activity to allow or reject.

Knowledge: Awareness about someone or something, acquired from data or information through experience or education.

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): The basic communication element or web services. Communication by sending messages enables a looser link between the systems and unimportant implementation details can be hidden.

Geoweb (The Geospatial Web): The merging of geographical (location-based) information with the general information which are available in the Internet.

Fuzzy Sets: Sets whose elements have degrees of membership in unit interval [0, 1].The element in the group are only partially. They allow to describe an indefinite or vague knowledge.

Web Services: Software systems that are able to provide means for interaction and communication of applications via a computer network.

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