Seafood Security and Sustainability Through Sustainable Development: A Review of Turkish Seafood Market

Seafood Security and Sustainability Through Sustainable Development: A Review of Turkish Seafood Market

Seda Yildirim (Tekirdag Namık Kemal University, Turkey) and Merve Kaplan (Kocaeli University, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2599-9.ch002
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The world has understood that hunger is one of the most dangerous problems for the future. Accordingly, food security and sustainability are both important issues through sustainable development. This chapter highlights the role of seafood security and sustainability for sustainable development. In this context, seafood security and sustainability for Turkish seafood market was investigated. Turkey is a coastal country, which has accepted 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, with a seafood market and a good sample to investigate seafood sustainability. This study employed secondary data from TURKSTAT and FAO websites to determine Turkish seafood market profile. The study determined seafood security and sustainability based on five dimensions as availability, economic access, physical access, utilization, and stabilization. Seafood sustainability is vital for coastal countries because seafood market brings economic, social, and environmental benefits at the same time.
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The rising world population (7.7 billion currently – UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2019) needs more food, fiber and fuel. These unlimited needs and wants of people mostly cause extinction of biodiversity, destruction of forest lands, farming areas, oceans and seas (Aladjadjiyan, 2012). The continuation of humanity is subject to environmental consciousness and awareness of settled economic and social life as fully as possible. over the last decade, environmental, social and economic policies made sustainable integration and sustainable development possible. Although sustainable development history is not so old, both developed and developing countries have transformed their economic policies and development strategies based on sustainability principle recently (Yıldırım, 2016). The idea of sustainability began in 1960s (International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2012) but the formal adventure of sustainable world began with World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in 1987. Sustainable development term was introduced to the world by the report of WCED (1987) called as “Our Common Future”. This report identified population and human resources, food security and sustainability, biodiversity, energy (sustainable energy resources), industry (sustainable production) and the urban challenge (sustainable city planning) as key action plans towards achieving a sustainable world (United Nations, 1987). Then, the United Nations (UN) (1972) determined the relationship between economy, society and environment through United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCED). The Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 at the The Earth Summit (1992) and UN members emphasized the need for a sustainable development and action plan (Klarin, 2018). It can be said that real action plan was set up by Rio+20. The first sustainable development goals, Millennium Development Goals, were launched in 2012 and main themes of sustainable development were presented to countries. After Rio+20, the United Nations (UN) accelerated the process and Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 (IISD, 2012).

Food shortage will cause a big problem in the future, if there aren’t any effective policies for food security and food sustainability (FAO, 2017). According to sustainable development goals, both developed and developing countries try to make their agricultural methods and technologies sustainable. For example, raising organic livestock and organic agriculture have become important movements for food security recently. However, these food security movements or action plans generally don’t include seafood. Although international seafood trade is so high, seafood security has been ignored for a long time (Smith, 2010). Seafood is an important and almost fundamental protein source for developing countries but an optional food for developed countries (Tlusty, 2012). It can be said that coastal developing or coastal emerging countries are more interested in seafood security and sustainability. Coastal countries generally prefer seafood as a fundamental food, just like crop or animal source foods. Seafood export and domestic sales also contribute substantially to coastal countries’ economy (FAO, 1996). Turkey is a developing country surrounded on three sides by sea and can also open to ocean by Turkish Bosporus and Gibraitar Strait. Turkey a part of the coastal areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea (TÜDAV, 2017). This study assessed the seafood security and seafood sustainability in Turkey.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Millennium Development Goals: First accepted globally sustainable development goals Including 8 basic goals to achieve until 2015.

Food Security: It can be defined as sustainable economic and physical access of various food ingredients globally.

Seafood Sustainability: To keep food security, protecting and maintaining availability of seafood and biodiversity of oceans and seas for the future.

Seafood Security: Like as food security, availability, economic and physical access to adequate and quality seafood by people.

Committee on World Food Security (CFS): It is an organization that including international members and governments to ensure food security globally. CFS runs a report regularly and determines the relationship between food security and sustainable development goals.

FAO-The Food and Agriculture Organization: It is an organization of the United Nations that leading international efforts to fight with hunger and achieve food security.

2030 Sustainable Development Goals: The last accepted global sustainable development goals that including 17 main goals to achieve until 2030.

Sustainable Development: A development approach that aims to balance between economy, environment, and society.

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