Seamless Control and Unified Dynamic Energy Management in a Renewable/Clean Energy Integrated Self-Reliant DC Microgrid: Integration of Renewable Sources With High-Gain Power Processing Stages

Seamless Control and Unified Dynamic Energy Management in a Renewable/Clean Energy Integrated Self-Reliant DC Microgrid: Integration of Renewable Sources With High-Gain Power Processing Stages

Vulisi Narendra Kumar (National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, India), Gayadhar Panda (National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, India) and Bonu Ramesh Naidu (Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 41
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3935-3.ch015

Abstract

The growing demand for electrical energy calls for the assimilation of renewable energy sources to the main utility grid. Multiple renewable energy sources (RESs) like solar PV array, wind turbine, micro-hydro plant, etc. can be combined and controlled to form a microgrid. In spite of the availability of different microgrid topologies, DC microgrid largely facilitates the injection of DC power from various renewable energy sources into the stabilised DC power pool. The requirement for a minimal number of conversion stages, simple structure, economic operation, and numerous localised applications are driving factors for the DC microgrid technology. The mettle of the DC microgrid technology lies in choosing the appropriate microgrid participants for energy interchange and the suitable supervisory control to tap power from the microgrid partakers even after respecting their operating constraints. The use of high gain DC-DC converters is inevitable in DC microgrid due to the low terminal voltage levels of different RESs.
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Nomenclature

  • : Primary inductance of the coupled inductor (Henry).

  • : The secondary inductance of the coupled inductor (Henry).

  • : The inductance of the bi-directional high gain converter (Henry).

  • : Leakage inductance of the coupled inductor (Henry).

  • : Magnetizing inductance of the coupled inductor (Henry).

  • : The capacitance of the passive clamp circuit (Farad).

  • : The diode of the passive clamp circuit.

  • : Feedback diode of the high gain converter.

  • : Output diode of the bi-directional high gain converter.

  • : The diode used for the step-down operation of the bi-directional high gain converter.

  • : Output capacitor of the high gain converter.

  • : Turns ratio of the coupled inductor.

  • : Duty ratio supplied to MOSFET switch of the Converter.

  • : The instantaneous power generated by PV source (Watt).

  • : The instantaneous power generated by Wind source (Watt).

  • : The instantaneous power supplied/absorbed by supercapacitor (Watt).

  • : The instantaneous power supplied/absorbed by a battery (Watt).

  • : Current flowing through the diode (Ampere).

  • : Current flowing through the output capacitor (Ampere).

  • : The voltage supplied to the high-gain converter (Volt).

  • : The voltage supplied to the bi-directional high-gain converter (Volt).

  • : Voltage Across the diode (Volt).

  • : Voltage Across the capacitor (Volt).

  • : Voltage Across the capacitor (Volt).

  • : Voltage Across the capacitor (Volt).

  • : Voltage Across the inductor (Volt).

  • : Voltage Across the inductor (Volt).

  • : Dark Current of the PV cell (Ampere).

  • : Saturation Current of the diode (Ampere).

  • : The voltage of the PV cell (Volt).

  • : Photovoltaic Current of the PV cell (Ampere).

  • : The series resistance of the PV cell (Ohm).

  • : Shunt resistance of the PV cell (Ohm).

  • : Mechanical input torque of the wind turbine

  • (N-m).

  • : Wind speed striking the wind turbine

  • (Rpm).

  • : Pitch Angle of the rotor blades.

  • : Power coefficient of the wind turbine.

  • : Energy requirement per day (Ah).

  • : Number of sunshine hours.

  • : Maximum power produced from the PV array (Watt).

  • : Energy produced during the cloudy weather from PV array .

  • : Factor to include losses due to pitch and alignment in PV cell

  • : A number of PV cell required.

  • : A number of wind turbine required.

  • : DC link voltage deviation (volt).

  • : Reference Current generated from the controller.

  • : Reference Current supplied to a supercapacitor.

  • : Reference Current supplied to the battery.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Microgrid: The combination of renewable sources and local loads that acts as a single controllable entity.

Energy Storage Systems: The combination of storage systems (like battery and supercapacitor) used to store the excess energy and supplies when it is desired.

SOC: State of the charge of the storage devices such as battery and supercapacitor.

XSG: Xilinx system generator, used to interface MATLAB/Simulink with the FPGA kit.

FPGA: Field programmable gate arrays, used to implement the designed algorithm.

Maximum Power Point Tracking: The particular voltage and current at which the maximum power can be drawn from the source.

Wind Energy Conversion System: The system used to produce electricity by using kinetic energy from the winds.

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