Security Attacks of Vehicular Networks

Security Attacks of Vehicular Networks

Jen-Chun Chang (National Taipei University, R.O.C.), Chun-I Fan (National Sun Yat-sen University, R.O.C.) and Ruei-Hau Hsu (National Sun Yat-sen University, R.O.C.)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-840-6.ch022
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The application of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) improves driving safety and traffic management. Due to the above applications, security attacks on VANET can be serious threats all the time. VANET is a special form of mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Hence any attacks exist on MANET also can be arisen on VANET. Moreover, some special attacks can be raised on VANET, which do not exist on MANET. Nevertheless, some characteristics of VANET can be positive effects and some can be negative effects on security issues. Before designing the security mechanism to defend attacks, the authors should take the positive effects and avoid the negative effects on the security of VANET. Furthermore, the authors class all possible attacks of VANET from every network layer. They also introduce the reason of forming every attack and the possible effect on VANET in detail. Therefore this chapter helps understanding the latent threats and the useful resources of security issues on VANET.
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22.1 Introduction

In recent years, people have fixed their eyes upon traffic-safety topic, because current traffic accident statistics are notoriously horrific. According to the European Red Cross Road Safety Campaign report, approximately 43,000 people die every year on the roads of the European Union (EU), with around 1.8 million people injured, and the costs associated with traffic accidents estimated 160 billion euros. The annual costs associated with crashes (like hospital bills and damaged property) total nearly 3 percent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2000, or roughly US $1 trillion. In order to reduce the traffic accidents, governments and researchers around the world try to find out effective solutions, and Vehicular Communication (VC) system, or we can also call it Vehicular ac hoc network (VANET), seems to be one of the answers and will be ubiquitous everywhere in the not-too-distant future.

Vehicular ac hoc network (VANET) is likely to become the most universal and relevant form of ad hoc networks due to the urgent need of driving safety. Another reason about the fast development of VANET is the impact to the market. There are more than 50 applications have been submitted by major car manufactures like BMW, Daimler-Chrysler, Ford, and GM which are based on Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) technology. DSRC is a short range wireless protocol specifically for automotive use. It offers communication between vehicles and Road Side Units (RSUs). This technology for VANET applications is working in the 5.9 GHz band (U.S) or 5.8 GHz band (Japan, Europe).

VC system includes two types of communications:

Inter-vehicle communication (IVC) (or someone call it Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication) and Roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) (or someone call it Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication). All two types are based on wireless multi-hop communication.

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