Security of Internet-, Intranet-, and Computer-Based Examinations in Terms of Technical, Authentication, and Environmental, Where Are We?

Security of Internet-, Intranet-, and Computer-Based Examinations in Terms of Technical, Authentication, and Environmental, Where Are We?

Babak Sokouti (Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran) and Massoud Sokouti (Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch146


Worldwide, increasing trends on distance learning provided by different educational and academic organizations require robust secure environments for carrying out the distance examinations. The security of online examinations is prone to many threats including the local cheaters and outside attackers. Several studies have been carried out in terms of technical, authentication algorithms, and environmental monitoring (supervised or unsupervised). None of these categories can satisfy the required security services to stop candidate cheating during the examination. A robust secure model will be needed to include all three categories in order to provide secure environments for examinee while no manual supervision is required by proctor or professors.
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For managing and conducting any types of e-exam systems, literature researchers have performed diverse studies considering special security aspects of them whether they are supervised or unsupervised including technical (e,g,. networking, question generation, servers, clients), examinee authentication and identification (e.g., passwords, tokens, and biometrics), environmental monitoring (e.g., webcams, microphones) for preventing possible cheatings during the examination period. Nowadays, for universities providing distance learning courses and degrees are getting epidemically widespread and educationally of much of interest over the world. To survey the current position of state of art related to online exams considering the security aspects, the SCOPUS database is searched and reviewed with the keywords “online” AND “exam” AND “security” in which 19 out of 49 were filtered out based on their relevant contents (i.e., by using title and abstract) for this study. However, one out of 19 was proposed as a web tool for teachers and did not discuss the security aspects of the online examinations (Castillo-Ramoran, 2008).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Integrity: An assurance for information not being altered or changed during the communication.

Identification: It is related to the identity of a person who claims about it.

Online Exam: A type of exam which can be taken overseas or locally with or without manual supervision.

Availability: A guarantee for an information resource being accessed all the time by authorized users. CIA Triad: There most required ones for security services (i.e., Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability).

Authentication: A process for knowing if someone who he is declared to be.

Confidentiality: A security service equivalent to privacy which can be achieved by encrypting the message using a cryptographic algorithm.

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