Segmenting Low-Carbon Tourists by Low-Carbon Travel Scale

Segmenting Low-Carbon Tourists by Low-Carbon Travel Scale

You-Yu Dai (Shandong Jiaotong University, China)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7214-5.ch023
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This chapter expands research on low-carbon tourism by using the low-carbon travel scale (LCTS) to profile low-carbon tourists. The results demonstrate the LCTS's ability to effectively identify different levels of low-carbon tourists. A priori segmentation was conducted using the respondents' overall LCTS score as the segmenting criterion. The resulting four segments were labeled “not a low-carbon tourist,” “minimal low-carbon tourists,” “moderate low-carbon tourists,” and “strong low-carbon tourists.” This study (1) confirms the usefulness of the LCTS for identifying and segmenting travelers and (2) provides the sustainable tourism field with a more holistic tool for measuring sustainable travelers. Destination managers interested in marketing to low-carbon tourists can use this tool to identify how many low-carbon tourists come to their area, level of low-carbon tourists' tendencies, and what the destination can focus on to attract more of this travel segment.
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1. Introduction

Tourism industry and tourist activity emission carbon dioxide account for about 5-14 percent of the global total (World Tourism Organization, WTO & United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP, 2008), and annual rate about 3.2% continued to increase (Peeters & Dubois, 2011). Among them, tourists vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships, etc.), and accommodations, as well as tourism activities caused by the energy consumption and carbon emissions of the most significant (Simpson, Gössling, Scott, Hall, & Gladin, 2008; Horng, Hu, Teng, & Lin, 2014a). Sustrans (2007) and Simpson, et al. (2008) have said that if visitors can alter energy consumption and high carbon travel behavior, you can slow down carbon emissions to increase. Therefore, how to engage in low-carbon tourism industry and academia in recent years has become a topic of concern.

Tourism is one of the important economic sectors in the world. The ultimate goal of low-carbon tourism is to alleviate climate change and realize the sustainable development of the society (Hsiao, Sung, & Lu, 2017). To improve travel environment, creating comfortable low carbon travel conditions and advocating green low-carbon travel have been an important measure for the government to construct low-carbon city (Qian, Zhou, & Chen, 2017). Zhu, Zhang, Liao, and Jin (2017) suggested There are many synergies between the low carbon transition and the pursuit of environmental goals, such as reducing water pollution and conserving biodiversity.

Although the study has been aimed at low-carbon tourism involved in the planning, transportation, accommodation, catering, shopping and other aspects of the discussion, however, many people interested in low-carbon tourism is still unable to arrange from the integration point of view to arrange low-carbon tourism. Therefore, it is the subject of this study which tourists can engage in low-carbon tourism activities. Compared to group visitors, since independent travelers can plan and arrange the characteristics of the run, so that it has the opportunity to practice low-carbon travel behavior in the run. Therefore, if you can guide independent travelers engaged in low-carbon tourism will be able to achieve the initiative to promote low-carbon tourism. The aim of this study is to apply a low-carbon travel scale (LCTS) to guide independent travelers to understand the orientation and content of the low-carbon travel behavior.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Low-Carbon Transport: Low-carbon transport can be seen as the core concept of low-carbon tourism.

Low-Carbon Consumption: Visitors carry reusable shopping bags, which are engaged in green consumption (e.g., products that buy energy-saving, locally produced, or environmentally friendly). Can reduce the consumption of carbon dioxide emissions in order to achieve energy saving and carbon reduction.

Low-Carbon Travel Behaviors: Low-carbon travel behaviors refers to tourists may reduce CO2 emission while they choose destinations, environmental friendly transport, and environmentally certified hotels, as well as eating in restaurants providing local, on season, and/or organic food.

Low-Carbon Tendency: Low-carbon tendency refers low-carbon tourism is not only willing to start from the tourists themselves, so that the holiday travel activities to reduce carbon emissions, but also called on others to participate.

Low-Carbon Journey Planning: Visitors' low-carbon travel planning focuses on simplifying itinerary to achieve the goal of reducing carbon emissions.

Low-Carbon: Low-carbon refers to reduce energy consumption in lifestyles, thereby reducing the related carbon emissions, particularly CO2.

Low-Carbon Diet: Low-carbon diet reduces greenhouse gas emissions from energy use.

Low-Carbon Accommodation: Energy savings can lead to a significant reduction in greenhouse carbon emissions.

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