Self-Tuning Control Systems: A Review of Developments

Self-Tuning Control Systems: A Review of Developments

Keith J. Burnham (Coventry University, UK), Ivan Zajic (Coventry University, UK), and Jens G. Linden (Coventry University, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61692-811-7.ch015
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A concise technical overview of some of the key ‘landmark’ developments in self-tuning control (STC) are presented. The notion of two coupled sub-algorithms forming the basis of STC together with enhancements to produce adaptive on-line procedures is discussed as well as the potential limitations of such schemes. The techniques covered include optimal minimum variance, sub-optimal pole-placement and long range model-based predictive control. Based on the experiences of the authors in the industrial application of STC, extensions of the standard linear model-based approaches to encompass a class of bilinear model-based schemes, are proposed. Some on-going developments and future research directions in STC for bilinear systems are highlighted. These include the requirements for combined algorithms for control and fault diagnosis and the need for models of differing complexities.
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Background: Technical Review Of Self-Tuning Control

This chapter on ‘Self-tuning Control Systems: A Review of Developments’ aims to inform the reader of the major developments and historical landmarks in the topic up to the present day. The earliest reference dates back to the first International Symposium on Self-Adaptive Flight Control in 1959 which was held at what is now the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, USA (Gregory, 1959), where the concept of ‘self learning’ control was first proposed. However, due to the lack of available technology at that time, in terms of reliable computer hardware and software, it was a decade before this concept was to re-emerge. In fact it re-emerged under the name of self-tuning control (STC) in the 1970s and was notably driven in those earlier years by Kalman (1960), Peterka (1970), and Astrom and Wittenmark (1973), who are now recognized as the early pioneers in this field. The major breakthrough by Astrom and Wittenmark (1973) with the optimal d-step ahead minimum variance (MV) self-tuning regulator/controller (STR)/STC in which convergence was proved for the simplest case was perhaps the first landmark which led to a positive resurgence and increased interest in the subject. This was followed in 1975 by the development due to Clarke and Gawthrop (1975) with the generalised minimum variance (GMV) STC in which constraints on control effort could be implemented to achieve a realizable control system. This led naturally to the incremental forms of MV and GMV STC, in which inherent integral action is automatically achieved.

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