Semantic Memory of Question-Answer Type

Semantic Memory of Question-Answer Type

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2987-3.ch004


In this chapter, we represent the grounds of the question-answer approach to conceptual designing the SISs. Basic features of this approach are real-time interacting of designers with natural experience and its models, analytical thinking in the conceptual work with project tasks, generating the constructs of the project theory of the substantially evolutionary type, and the use of conceptual experimenting when it is necessary. In indicated actions, designers process conceptual objects in the conceptual space in the frame of design thinking. For providing such activity, we have developed the toolkit WIQA, the kernel of which is a semantic memory be described in this Chapter. The memory is intended for uploading the conceptual constructs, any of which integrates a corresponding composition of interactive objects of “question” and “answer” types. For interactions with the memory, designers can use a set of commands in manual mode or programs written on the specialized pseudocode language.
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1. Logical Model Of The Semantic Memory

1.1. Semantic Memory

As told above, realizing the question-answer approach has led to developing the toolkit WIQA in a number of versions as for team of designers so for the personal use (Sosnin, 16). There are differences among versions, but in any version, the central place occupies its kernel that provides a reflection of a project on the corresponding tree of tasks and a set of QA-models of tasks. The very simplified scheme of the toolkit is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Functional structure of WIQA

In the use of the toolkit, the designer has a direct visual access to the content of question-answer base (QA-base) that is intended for uploading the QA-objects of any type. Such objects are created by designers in interactive mode when they solve appointed tasks. One of the important kinds of QA-objects are constructs of the theory ThP(t).

The scheme of WIQA includes a number of plug-ins, any of which can be qualified as the certain application of the kernel because this application interacts with QA-base. Moreover, plug-ins use data that are also uploaded in QA-base. For example, a model of an organizational structure of the team developing the project is similar QA-model of the task (Sosnin, 12).

Therefore, one can interpret QA-base of the toolkit as a semantic memory, cells of which allow uploading sets and systems of QA-objects. The Figure 2 demonstrates this view on QA-base, in depth of which are used structures of the used Data Base Management System.

Figure 2.

Interpretation of semantic memory

QA-memory with its cells is intended for registering the conceptual content of reflected units with taking into account the semantics of their textual descriptions. The necessary semantics is fixed in basic attributes of the cell and in additional attributes that can be added by the designer if it will be useful for a simple object stored in the cell. The potential structure of a simple object is presented in Figure 3.

A set of basic attributes of the cell helps to register for the stored object its unique identifier (address in QA-memory), type, description, the name of the creator, time of storing or last modification, the name of the parent object, the quantity of “children” and some other characteristics. These attributes with their values and the definite subsystem of operations (commands) support interactions of designers with visualized object stored in the corresponding cell.

Figure 3.

Specification of the interactive object

Additional attributes are attached to the simple definite object for enriching its computerized potential, for example, to enrich semantics of the object representation in QAmemory. It is necessary to note that additional attributes are applied in some system processes implemented with the toolkit WIQA.

QA-objects and their compositions are accessible in visualized The designer interact with chosen objects in the operational space the main form of which is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4.

Visualization of the interactive object

The main form and other interfaces (providing the interactive access of designers to QA-objects uploaded in the semantic memory) have instrumental strips and other versions of combining the interface units.

Below, for specifications of QA-objects in the QA-memory, a formal grammar GRQA with extended BNF-notations will be used. For example, structures of created QA-objects should correspond to the following rules of GRQA:

  • QA-Memory = {QA-object};

  • QA-object = Question, “←”, Answer;

  • Question = Q│(Q,“↓”,{Q});

  • (1) Answer = A│(A, “↓”, {A});

  • Q = ({a}, {[aa]}, {[f]}, {[p]} {[r]}); A = ({a}, {[aa]}, {[f]}) {[p]} {[r]}; a = (address, type, description, time, the others),

where “Q” and “A” are typical visualized objects stored in cells of QA-memory, symbol “↓” designates an operation of “subordinating.”

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