Sensing the Presence and Amount of Microbes Using Double Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Sensing the Presence and Amount of Microbes Using Double Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Anand Y. Joshi (G.H. Patel College of Engineering and Technology, India) and Ajay M. Patel (G.H. Patel College of Engineering & Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1043-7.ch004
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Abstract

The principle of mass detection using nano biosensors is based on the fact that the resonant frequency is very much sensitive to the mass of the bio-molecule, as with mass changes stiffness varies. The change of the attached mass on the CNT causes a shift to the resonant frequency. The key issue of mass detection is in quantifying the shift in the resonant frequency due to the mass of the attached molecule.This study, explores the vibration responses of the cantilever single and double-walled carbon nanotube with various attached microbes on the tip with an aim of developing a sensor. The biological objects studied include Alanine with Amino terminal residue, Deoxyadeonosine with free residue, Coronaviridae, Bartonella bacilliformis etc.. This sensor will be utilized to facilitate the identification of bacteria or virus that may be attached to CNT.
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Introduction

Detection of the mass of bio-molecules has become an increasing growing field in the biological and biomedical sciences. It is recognized as one of the key technologies for predictive and preventive medicine as discussed by Hood et al. (2004). The common strategy for prediction of disease is based on sensing the corresponding biomolecules as indicated by Iijima et al. (1991, 1993). It is reasonable to believe that biosensors with real-time sensing capability and ease of use can change the future of disease detection and health monitoring. Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) they have emerged as a new class of nanomaterials as indicated by Dresselhaus, and Haddon (2001, 2002). Due to their unique physical properties suggested by Ajayan et al, (1999a, 1999b) Lin et al (2004). Gu et al (2005) they have been used in a variety of applications in fields such as scanning probes Wang et al. (2005)Kumar et al. (2008)Yun, et al. (2007) nano electronics, storage devices Rivas et al. (2007)Baughman, et al. (1999)Fennimore, et al. (2003) and nano electromechanical systems.

Recently there has been a rapidly growing interest of CNTs in biological applications Tsang et al. (1995)Davis, et al. (1998)Wong, et al. (1998)Mattson et al. (2000) in the field of medicine Lu, et al. (2009) and sensing mechanism specifically as biosensors. The development of nano-biosensors lee and Yoon et al (2007) based on CNTs has been driven by the fact that biological objects such as proteins, enzymes, bacteria can be immobilized either in the hollow cavity or on the surface of carbon nanotubes.

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