Silicene Nanoribbons and Nanopores for Nanoelectronic Devices and Applications

Silicene Nanoribbons and Nanopores for Nanoelectronic Devices and Applications

Hatef Sadeghi (Lancaster University, UK) and Sara Sangtarash (Lancaster University, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0736-9.ch003


Given the compatibility of silicene with existing semiconductor techniques, and a need for new materials to continue Moore's low, it is natural to ask if this material can form a platform as field effect transistor. Here we provide analytical models to study the electrical properties of two dimensional silicene such as electrical conductance, carrier concentration, mobility and magneto-conductance. Furthermore, we show that silicene nanoribbons and nanopores can be used as a discriminating sensor for DNA sequencing and for efficient thermoelectric power generation.
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After isolation of Graphene, two-dimensional planar sheet of sp2 bonded carbon atoms in honeycomb lattice, which shows interesting electrical properties with zero band gap in Dirac point, attempts to find one atomic thick structure of conventional materials such as silicon or germanium raised considerable scientific interest (Ni, 2011; Pitcher, 2011; Sadeghi, 2011; Sadeghi, 2014b; Sadeghi, 2013a; Sadeghi, 2012; Sadeghi, 2015a). One atomic thick crystalline form of silicon atoms with sp2-sp3 bond arranged in a honeycomb lattice structure called Silicene (Figure 1) is experimentally observed by Nakano, et al for the first time (Nakano, 2006). First principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) showed that despite carbon atoms that make two demensional planar sheet, Silicene makes stable bounds in semi two dementional (semi-2D) hexagon form (Cahangirov, 2009). The synthesis of silicene nanoribbons has been demonstrated on silver (111) (Aufray, 2010; Avila, 2013; Chen, 2013a; Chen, 2013b; Chen, 2012; Enriquez, 2012; Feng, 2012; Feng, 2013; Jamgotchian, 2012; Lalmi, 2010; Lin, 2012; Molle, 2013; Padova, 2013; Vogt, 2012), gold (110) (Tchalal, 2013), iridium (111) (Meng, 2013) and the zirconium diboride (0001) (Fleurence, 2012; Friedlein, 2013) substrates and are predicted to be stable on non-metallic substrates (Kokott, 2014). In contrast with graphene, the buckling of silicene (Majzik, 2013) can open up an energy gap at the Fermi energy EF of between 300meV (Avila, 2013) and 800meV (Huang, 2013), which can be controlled by an external perpendicular electric field (Drummond, 2012). Silicene is shown to be grown on metallic substrate. Recently Tao et al succeeded to transfer it to the isolating substrate and use original metallic platform used on growing process as the silver electrode to realize room temperature silicene based field effect transistor FET (Tao, 2015).

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