Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characteristics, and Application

Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characteristics, and Application

Boguslaw Buszewski (Centre for Modern Interdisciplinary Technologies, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland), Viorica Railean Plugaru (Centre for Modern Interdisciplinary Technologies, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland), Pawel Pomastowski (Centre for Modern Interdisciplinary Technologies, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland) and Anatoli Sidorenco (Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies “D.GHITU”, Technical University of Moldova, Moldova)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1241-8.ch020

Abstract

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), as a material with attractive properties, has received interest worldwide by the implementation of synthesis particles at nano-size. AgNPs has triggered intense research on the production of nanoparticles using different synthesis methods due actual and future application. The increasing attention of AgNPs resulted in the growth and development of nanoparticles synthesis methods. Recently, various approaches, including chemical and biological, have been used for them preparation. In order to obtain information about size, shape, or optical properties of nanoparticles, a broad range of analytical methods—microscopy, spectroscopy, and spectrometry techniques—have been used. AgNPs exhibit attractive antimicrobial properties against bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative), fungi, and show also selective toxicity toward normal and cancerous cells. This chapter reviewed the methods of AgNPs synthesis, their characteristics, antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxicity against normal and tumor cells.
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Antibiotics Strategy

The “Father of microbiology”, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was one of the first people (26 December 1676) who observed cells of bacteria with the microscope constructed by himself. As later has been noticed, microorganisms populate the entire planet, and due to the property of mutation, they are adapted even for extreme conditions such as high temperature and low acidity (Stewart, 2002). Many of the bacteria prove profitable activity for human - bacteria occupying a gastrointestinal tract, participating in the correct processes of digestion (microflora), holding appropriate pH on the surface of mucous membranes, and determining barrier protective on the surface of skin (Michael et al, 2010). They are also used for different types of fermentation in food industry. However, only after many years of intensive research on the microorganisms their pathogenic activity has been proven as a result of which millions of people died. This problem encouraged mankind to search medicine against the threatening microbes. Many scientists took research in this direction, but only in 1929 year became isolated the first antibiotic. Alexander Fleming observed the inhibitory influence of fungus Penicillium notatum on the Staphylococcus strain. Name of antibiotic comes from Greek language, from words: anti - against, bios - life and their height means substances which they can destroy bacteria or suppress, but are out of order to healthy cells of the organism. The basis of antibiotic therapy it is considered the Ehrlich rule, based on which the antibiotic is a chemical connection, without showing high toxicity to eukaryotic cells, causes the damage or death of microorganisms. Nevertheless, it is important to note that, firstly, the antibiotic was produced by living organisms through insulation and was not product of the chemical synthesis (Kumar et al, 2005).

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