Simulation of Grinding by Means of the Finite Element Method and Artificial Neural Networks

Simulation of Grinding by Means of the Finite Element Method and Artificial Neural Networks

A.P. Markopoulos (Laboratory of Manufacturing Technology, National Technical University of Athens, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0128-4.ch008
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Abstract

Simulation of grinding is a topic of great interest due to the wide application of the process in modern industry. Several modeling methods have been utilized in order to accurately describe the complex phenomena taking place during the process, the most common being the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In the present work, a FEM model and an ANN model for precision surface grinding, are presented. Furthermore, a new approach, a combination of the aforementioned methods, is proposed, and a hybrid model is presented. This model comprises the advantages of both FEM and ANN models. The three kinds of models described in this work are able to accurately predict several grinding features that define the outcome of the process and the quality of the final product.
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Background

Grinding is a manufacturing process characterized by complex relationships between process parameters, workpiece and cutting tools characteristics as well as quality features of the finished products. Researchers have utilized modeling and simulation for several decades, now, in order to investigate grinding more thoroughly, explain phenomena taking place during the process and achieve its optimization.

Grinding models are used for the prediction of surface roughness, wear characteristics, grinding forces, grinding energy and surface integrity among others. Grinding forces are essential for calculating grinding energy, which in turn determines surface integrity; grinding energy is transformed into heat dissipated into wheel, chip, workpiece and cutting fluid, if present. Excessive heat loading of the workpiece leads to the formation of heat affected zones. This heat input is responsible for a number of defects in the workpiece like metallurgical alterations, microcracks and residual stresses. High surface temperatures are connected to these phenomena and may lead to grinding burn (Malkin, 1978; Malkin and Guo, 2007). Because of the importance of the heat transfer problems in grinding, thermal modelling has proved to be of utmost importance. Thermal models relate all the process parameters in order to determine grinding temperatures.

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