Sliding Mode in Real Communications

Sliding Mode in Real Communications

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2292-8.ch003
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In this chapter, real communication refers to the combined information process a set of hardware and software, working in the human relationship with a man capable on the basis of information, knowledge and experience, and in the presence of motivation to synthesize a new goal to make the new decision to take action and find rational ways to achieve this goal. As it was mentioned in Chapter 1, the way of sliding modes forms the basis for new methods and technology of communications providing for adaptability and at the same time invariability of communications.
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In the last decade the term “tolerance” has established itself in academic literature (Lat. tolerantia – patience, condescension). The phenomenon of tolerance is widely researched by scholars from different science branches. This term has appeared and is actively discussed in cultural studies, sociology, political science, economics, psychology, history, pedagogy. The key idea of the research is it being the necessary framework for all productive and harmonious relationship between people.

Despite the frequent use of the term, there is still no unanimity in its understanding. There is a wide range of divergence in the views of tolerance and its limits. This is connected with different approaches in its studies and the complexity of the phenomenon proper. According to the context of studies, tolerance is filled with a specific sense. Some scholars write about tolerant relationship and attitudes, others – about tolerance as a personality’s trait, still others – about the skills of tolerant behavior. There exist approaches to tolerance as a core value, a form of social interaction, a culture of conversation, a significant personality quality of the specialists working with people – doctors, psychologists, politicians, managers, educators.

Numerous studies focus of difference aspects of tolerance as its essential features, connecting this concept with different factors and determiners. The word tolerance is not quite common in Russian reality. We considered the semantics of this word in different languages using foreign language dictionaries.

In English dictionaries tolerance is understood as religious toleration, assumption of religious freedom, tolerance is a skill of tolerantly accept another person’s (different from own) opinions, convictions, traditions, characters, to demonstrate tolerance, to bear, to tolerate (Farber,2016).

In French tolerance supposes respect another person’s freedom, his/ her way of thinking, behavior, political and religious views.

In Chinese is being tolerant means allowing of and demonstrating goodness towards others.

In Persian tolerance is patience, endurance and readiness for reconciliation.

In Arabic – forgiveness, condescension, compassion, benevolence, patience, goodwill for others.

General information about tolerance provided by the dictionaries can be summed up to the effect that tolerance is toleration and condescension, admittance of something alien, the object of toleration being “others’ opinion, faith and behavior”.

In the Russian language there are two words with a similar meaning – “толерантность” and “терпимость”. As the analysis has shown, these concepts are interconnected and they coexist but they are not full equivalents. This can be mainly explained by the fact that the understanding of tolerance has not yet been completely formed for a Russian speaker.

The concept of “терпимость” is widely used in medicine and biology as connected with the adaptation processes in the body. In this case the axiological meaning of tolerance is determined by the body’s reaction to the environment. This reaction is expressed in the rising sensibility of the body, its cells and tissues to the effect produced by a substance and contribute to maintaining homeostasis (relatively dynamic consistency of composition and qualities of interior environment and sustainability of the main physiological functions of the body). Consequently, tolerance provides for the homeostatic balancing of an individual’s relationship with the environment.

Tolerance is connected with adaptation processes not only in the sphere of biology, but also in the social sphere. This clearly demonstrates the definition of tolerance in psychological dictionaries: “Tolerance is the absence or weakening of reaction to an unfavorable factor as a result of lowering sensibility to its effect. It is manifested in self-restraint, composure, the ability to bear unfavorable effects for a long time without decreasing of adaptation abilities”.

K.A. Albukhanova-Slavskaya considering historic and modern features of Russian mentality notes that the Christian concept of compassion – patience plays a key role in the Russian national character. Though tolerance connected with accepting suffering, fills this concept with the content which is quite far from tolerance (Rogers, 2015).

“Толерантность”, unlike “терпимость”, expresses rather an active than passive position of an individual towards another individual.

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