Smart City in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Smart City in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Saira Banu Atham, Kalpna Guleria
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3640-7.ch019
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The earth is covered 71% by water and the human utilizes the remaining 29% for their shelter and living. The idea of living under the water is possible only in fiction movies for our ancestors. But in this century, the idea of living in an underwater city has become a reality with the development of the existing technology. The exploration of the undersea is booming in the science community, which shows the path for underwater cities, underwater museum, and underwater hotels. This chapter contributes the information related to underwater smart cities in three folds: (1) discusses the major challenges in developing the underwater infrastructure, (2) introduces the internet of underwater things components involved in interconnecting the devices for underwater acoustic communication, (3) list the examples of the existing masterpiece architecture constructed underwater.
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Challenges In Developing The Underwater Infrastructure

This section, discusses the major challenges (liou et al., 2018) for telecommunication in underwater based on the following aspects:

  • 1.

    Transmission media

  • 2.

    Propagation speed

  • 3.

    Transmission range

  • 4.

    Transmission rate

  • 5.

    Difficulty to recharge

  • 6.


  • 7.


Transmission Media: The communication under the sea is based on acoustic communications instead of radio communications. The acoustic communication is the method of sending and receiving the information below the water. The properties of the waves below the sea are different from the radio waves. So different protocols are required for establishing the communication system under the sea water. Additionally establishing the transmission media is another major challenge. Various researches related to the transmission channel for multimedia communication (Saira Banu et al.,2019).using the VoIP Protocol is in progress.

Propagation Speed: The propagation speed of objects in underwater networks is approximately 200,000 times slower than in land network. For example the propagation speed of radio channels is 300,000,000 m/s in land whereas in acoustic channels it is only around 1500 m/s. So addressing the delay in packet transmission will be a major issue.

Transmission Range: The transmission range of underwater sensor network will be approximately ten times longer than in the normal land network. The signals will be absorbed by the water in the acoustic environment. So the signals have to be transmitted in low frequency. Lower frequency indicates longer transmission range; which in turn results in high risks for interferences and collisions during the transmission of data. Hence, avoidance of interferences and collisions is considered as another challenge in underwater communication.

Transmission Rate: The acoustic environment goes for narrow bandwidth, which lowers the transmission rate (approximately 10 kbps). Hence, efficient utilization of bandwidth is very important challenge to be addressed in underwater communication.

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