Smart Vehicles for Traffic Management and Systems Using Cloud Computing

Smart Vehicles for Traffic Management and Systems Using Cloud Computing

Ashish Thomas (Rajasthan University Jaipur, India), Gaurav Singal (Bennett University, India) and Riti Kushwaha (MNIT Jaipur, India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3981-0.ch008

Abstract

A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is the network of mobile devices as well as stationary objects that can communicate with each other. This technology comprises of both vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) data transmission links. At present, vehicular mobility framework has a lot of limitations, which includes lack of real-time operations, frequent disconnects due to dynamic-restricted topology, tracking vehicle that break rules, lane-changes, exceed speed-limit, etc. These characteristics call for a new type of high class of protocol. This chapter presents a survey report on “smart traffic control” system that incorporates traffic-related parameters to further augment the control and management of vehicular movements on the roadways. This can support efficient management of traffic in the city, and cops can communicate with each other, get real-time, accurate, status update of the traffic, track the vehicular movements, etc. In addition, jam control mechanism can be placed on heavy traffic days to optimize the routes. This system introduces artificial intelligence (AI) that can optimize deployed of cops and find alternate routes for the driver to reach the destination address without much fuel consumption.
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1. Introduction

VANET is a sort of Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET). The chief characteristic of VANET comprises of movable nodes or vehicles that send and receive message or information from one movable node to another by following a straight constraint path called roads or lanes. As described in the above figure 1.0, they can communicate with mobile nodes on the road, a.k.a. Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication) as well as stationary nodes available on the roadside which are not movable, a.k.a. Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication. Such, mobile gadgets kept on the side of the highways that are used to communicate with vehicles are called Road Side Units (RSU). In the future vehicles would be computer operated and would automate a lot of manual tasks done presently (Lind, 1999). However, in the present circumstance, traffic security, traffic congestion management, traffic rule adherence mechanism, etc. have of paramount importance.

Figure 1.

Vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure

Electronic sensor and device panel placed inside a vehicle enable the driver to navigate appropriately on roadways. Driver has to adhere to traffic laws or instructions, such as speed limits, possible danger and other policies assure traffic is orderly and safe. Traffic security, traffic congestion management, traffic rule adherence mechanism, etc. are also required to properly manage traffic on Roads. A typical VANET network is formed by vehicles moving on the roadways. These are highly dynamic networks. These networks are similar to MANET and change network topology rapidly, connection lasts for very short span, communication may occur just once. Both MANETs and VANET are self-organization of nodes that are independent and dynamic, VANET has additional attributes, which includes, network dependence on driver’s way to navigate a node in a straight path for a very short duration with higher speed, dynamics, and higher mobility amongst nodes in comparison to MANETs. In addition, to that VANET has frequent fragmentation due to swift and fairly predictable topological change. Changing the transmission range of the vehicle with respect to distance increases the network throughput. When the distance is small transmission range can be lowered and it can be increased when the vehicle moves far apart (Artimy, & Maen, 2005). VANETs is recognized as the eminent technology that can advance competence and security in transportation structure (Blum, 2006). For instance, some of the application may include neighboring vehicles gossip with each other and suggest alternative route to other vehicles, and transmute traffic congestion related information to nearby vehicles early in order to reduce traffic jams in and around the affected areas. UN report on road safety 2015 states that approximately 1.25 million people get killed every year on road accidents worldwide. It further forecasts that the roadside mishaps is on the rise and if this pattern continues and no measures are taken by the governments, then, it would eventually become the 7th major cause of death in the world by the year 2030. Hence, providing road safety for all users is a major challenge in recent times. Application of “SMART TRAFFIC CONTROL” mechanism using VANET can enhance the existing road traffic system and look at transportation system from an entirely different perspective. These vehicles can connect to the Internet to obtain real-time data, updated path information reports, location-specific details without actually visiting those nearby location and congestion, weather and route related estimations based on available information through V2V or V2I interactions. V2V together with V2I is termed as V2X communication.

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