Smartness, City Efficiency, and Entrepreneurship Milieu

Smartness, City Efficiency, and Entrepreneurship Milieu

Luigi Mundula (University of Cagliari, Italy) and Sabrina Auci (University of Palermo, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7030-1.ch006
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The definition of smart city and its measurement are not shared. Different characteristics define a city as smart, which is strictly linked to urban efficiency and to entrepreneurship spirit in a multifaceted way as well as to citizens' well-being. On the basis of the comparison between city and entrepreneur behaviour and on the definition of Giffinger et al. (2007) of smart city, this chapter verifies the efficiency of a sample of European cities using a stochastic frontier approach. Departing from this analysis, the chapter develops the relative smartness definition based on the efficient use of its own resources and related to the different context. Moreover, as a city becomes close to the optimal value, the frontier will shift upward because of the more attractiveness and a new adjustment mechanism should be followed to become efficient again (virtuous cycle). Then, the concept of smartness becomes dynamic. This definition, taking into account city's performance, is able to sustain the entrepreneurship milieu of a city.
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City Smartness, Efficiency, And Entrepreneurship Milieu

The smartness notion is strictly related to territory, efficiency and innovation promoted by an entrepreneurship milieu. At urban level, the smart city concept, firstly related to energy saving and efficiency use issues, has been developed to include different aspects such as quality of life, environment, transport net, telecommunication facilities and so on.

Over the past 40 years, innovation and territory have been connected in different ways. Among the main theories, the industrial district of the Third Italy (Bagnasco, 1977), the industrial clusters (Porter, 1990), the science and technology parks (400 cases in Europe alone) and the so-called technopolis can be recalled. Innovation is mainly generated by three factors:

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