Social Entrepreneurship Activities in the Tourism Sector: Bibliometric Analysis and Social Network Analysis

Social Entrepreneurship Activities in the Tourism Sector: Bibliometric Analysis and Social Network Analysis

Şükran Sirkintioğlu Yildirim, Ülkühan Bike Esen
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7239-9.ch004
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Social entrepreneurship is a frequently encountered and increasingly popular concept. Although there are some differences and difficulties in defining the concept, the main reason why it has become such a frequently heard concept today is the social purpose inherent in it. The ability of social entrepreneurship activities to find a place in the tourism sector will make it easier for both social entrepreneurship activities and the tourism sector to achieve their goals. Therefore, in this study, it is aimed to reveal the required fields of study by determining how the concept of social entrepreneurship is handled in the field of tourism with bibliometric analysis. In line with the purpose, 43 studies including the determined keywords were reached. When the methodologies of the articles were examined, it was concluded that empirical studies were in the majority and most of these empirical studies were prepared by using the qualitative research method.
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The entrepreneur is one of the production factors and is defined by Schumpeter as “the person who sets up a company to produce a new product or to produce an existing product in a new method”. Marx, on the other hand, emphasizes the aim of the entrepreneur to make profit, and for this purpose, he states that the entrepreneur acts with the motive of constantly following innovations, improving and developing the existing, which is the basis of social change. Although they define the entrepreneur from different angles, both Schumpeter and Marx emphasized the importance of entrepreneurship in order to create innovations and therefore they argued that entrepreneurs should be protected, promoted and encouraged (cited in Tiryaki, 2012: 14-16).

There are three main dimensions of entrepreneurial activity that the entrepreneur carries out with the aim of making a profit or bringing an innovation: Innovation, risk taking and proactivity (Morris, Avila & Allen, 1993). Combinations of these dimensions in different proportions have led to the emergence of many different types of entrepreneurship such as opportunity entrepreneurship, innovative entrepreneurship, follower entrepreneurship (Tekin, 2009: 3-4), internal entrepreneurship (Pinchot, 1985: 4), green entrepreneurship (Berchicci, 2009: 1), and virtual entrepreneurship (Chandra & Leenders, 2012). Social entrepreneurship, which deals with entrepreneurship socially, is one of these new entrepreneurship types. Austin, Stevenson and Wei-Skillern (2006) define social entrepreneurship as “an innovative, social value creation activity that can take place in non-profit organizations, the private sector or the public sector”. It is stated that the concept of corporate social responsibility was first used in Bowen's book Social Responsibilities of the Businessman published in 1953 (Aktan & Börü, 2007: 2). The concept of social entrepreneurship has emerged with the merger of corporate social responsibility and entrepreneurship. Studies on social entrepreneurship, whose main purpose is to create social value and for which entrepreneurs generally do not act with the aim of making a profit (Abu Saifan, 2012: 23), are increasing day by day. Studies in which social enterprise and social entrepreneurship are tried to be defined in different ways (Dees, 1998; Mort, Weerawardena & Carnegie, 2002; Roper & Cheney, 2005; Martin and Osberg, 2007), Catford's (1998) study emphasizing the necessity of a suitable environment for the development of social entrepreneurs, article of Barki et al. (2015) in which they examine social entrepreneurship retrospectively and prospectively, articles and reports examining social entrepreneurship activities in different countries and regions (Kerlin, 2006; Bulsara, Gandhi & Chandwani, 2015; Wulleman and Hudon, 2015; İnci, 2016) are a few examples of studies conducted on social entrepreneurship. Studies dealing with social entrepreneurship efforts in different sectors are also included in the literature (Souitaris and Zerbinati, 2005; Ziegler et al., 2014; Loosemore, 2015). Tourism is one of the sectors subject to social entrepreneurship studies. The intersection point of these two concepts is that social entrepreneurship aims to create social value and tourism has a positive effect on social welfare. This intersection set, called tourism social entrepreneurship, is described by Sheldon, Pollock, and Daniele (2017: 7) as: “A process that uses tourism to create innovative solutions to immediate social, environmental and economic problems in destinations by mobilizing the ideas, capacities, resources and social agreements, from within or outside the destination, required for its sustainable social transformation”.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Tourism: It is an important economic sector that refers to the short-term movements of people to different locations.

Social Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial activities to achieve social goals.

Social Network Analysis: A type of data analysis conducted on a social network, which aims to reveal the hidden relationship between entities and to calculate the parameters and indicators using nodes, edges, and communities.

Social Enterprise: A business established for social purposes.

Social: Being related to society.

Social Entrepreneur: An entrepreneur who carries out entrepreneurial activity for social purposes.

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