Social Functioning, Interpersonal Difficulties, Social Deficits, and Social Skills Training in ADHD

Social Functioning, Interpersonal Difficulties, Social Deficits, and Social Skills Training in ADHD

Vaishali S. Chaudhari (General Hospital, Bharuch, India)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5495-1.ch012
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Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders of childhood. Children with ADHD exhibit developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and/or motor activity. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent mental disorders affecting children. ADHD also affects many adults. Symptoms of ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD may also negatively affect the learning environment in children's homes. This chapter talks about social functioning, social deficits, interpersonal difficulties, and social skills training in ADHD. Individuals with ADHD have problems in the areas of peer interaction, emotional regulation, and pro-social behaviours. These social problems are associated with a greater risk for developing problems later in life.
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What Is Adhd?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders, is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by developmentally Inappropriate levels of activity, distractibility, and impulsivity (APA,2000) Behavioral problems in children with ADHD include acting without adequate consideration as to the cost of their actions and inability to postpone performance with impulsive decisions and behaviors. ADHD negatively influence social communications with peers, interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers and peers as well as academic success and social functions (Barkley, 2006) and (Dulcan, 1997), Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder APA, (1994) firmly display levels of activity that are far in excess of their age group; they are not capable to sustain attention, interest, and persistence to tasks as well as to connections with peers, and their self-regulation lag far behind expectations for their developmental level. Children with ADHD repeatedly suffer from co morbid disorders, such as oppositional-defiant disorder, conduct disorder and internalizing disorders (Barkley, 2003).Children with ADHD are very likely to be impaired in the social, academic, familial, and, later, occupational domains of life (Barkley, 2003). Among the different symptom pictures evidenced by children with ADHD, severe social incompetence and peer relationship difficulties play a important role (Kolko, Loar, &Sturnick 1990; Landau & Moore, 1991; Pelham & Bender, 1982; Van der Oord et al., 2005). According to these researches individual with ADHD have more difficult behaviours then without ADHD children.

A diagnosis of ADHD is made through credit of excessive inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in a child, before 12 years of age that causes impairment to them functioning or development (DSM-5; ICD-10). The principal classification systems for diagnosing ADHD are: International Classification of Diseases - 10th version (ICD-10); and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), and a fifth Edition (DSM-5).In the DSM-IV and DSM-5, there are three different sub diagnoses, where exacting symptoms are identified and classified: the 'predominantly inattentive type'; the 'predominantly hyperactive impulsive type'; and the 'combined' type, which presents with both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms Willcut(2012). Co morbid disorders, like behavioural disorders, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, tics, motor skill development disturbance, learning difficulties, and verbal and cognitive difficulties are common in ADHD (Newcorn 2008; Schmidt 2009; Yoshimasu 2012; Czamara 2013; Perroud 2014). Thus, they have symptoms of ADHD and many co morbid disorders can be present.

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