Some Foundational Aspects of Andragogy's History

Some Foundational Aspects of Andragogy's History

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3937-8.ch003
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Abstract

This chapter offers a vigorous clash for and against andragogy within this time frame but reaching back to ancient roots informing the development of andragogical ideas and connecting with the very beginning of the 21st century. Savicevic from Serbia provided a critical consideration of andragogical concepts in 10 European countries – five Western and five Eastern. Knowles clearly articulates in one place his six assumptions and eight process elements of andragogy. Poggeler from Germany listed 10 trends, which he hoped would be beneficial in future European and USA research. Welton launched a very vigorous accusation against Knowles and andragogy that declares their abandonment of adult education's vital role in fostering democratic action. Draper traced the metamorphosis of andragogy as humane treatment of adult learners. Savicevic's comprehensive andragogy book includes thirty of his works over 26 years and views andragogy as a fairly independent scientific discipline.
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Introduction

This decade presents a clash of forces for and against Andragogy. Savicevic (1991) provided some foundations of andragogical concepts stemming from ten European countries. The comparison of these showed common roots in which he aligned himself with establishing the origin and development of andragogy as a discipline focused on adult learning and education in all its forms of expression. Pratt (1993) perceived andragogy as lacking what he seemed to view as fulfilling a promise of being a panacea for adult education. Knowles (1995) clearly articulates in one place his six assumptions and eight process elements of andragogy. Welton (1995) leveled a most vigorous accusation against Knowles and andragogy that declares their abandonment of adult education’s once vital role in fostering democratic social action. However, Houle (1996) claimed that Knowles’ andragogy remains the most learner-centered patterns of adult education programming. Billington (1998) found that presence of the andragogical process of SDL helped learners grow. Nonetheless, the absence of it, contributed to learners regressing. Draper (1998) researched the metamorphosis of andragogy as humane treatment of adult learners, Baden (1998) applied andragogy to successfully administer twenty-seven associations. Savicevic (1999b) speculated that Knowles made a number of mistakes on andragogy, so considered him inconsistent. Johnson (2000) asserted that andragogy could qualify as a theory or emergent theory of adult learning.

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