Spectrum Sensing and Identification Techniques of Cognitive Radio Networks

Spectrum Sensing and Identification Techniques of Cognitive Radio Networks

Rashmi M. Kittali (Basaveshwar Engineering College, India) and Ashok V. Sutagundar (Basaveshwar Engineering College, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5354-0.ch011


Cognitive radio emerged as one of the key enabling technologies of dynamic spectrum access, addressing the problem of inefficient usage of the available radio spectrum. It aims at providing more effective and convenient communication capabilities. Cognitive radio which is considered as the key technology for future mobile computing and wireless communications can form cognitive radio networks (CRN) by extending the features of radio link to network layer functions and above. The cognitive radio systems have the ability to exploit the spectrum holes by detecting and using them in an opportunistic manner through spectrum sensing. This chapter will brief the various architectures of cognitive radio networks, terminal capabilities of cognitive radio as nodes of CRN highlighting the spectrum sensing ability and different methods of it, and some applications of CRN.
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Today, the production of new radio to get advancements is restricted by the deficiency of the accessible radio spectrum. These new innovations are ending up noticeably demanding because of their higher rate prerequisites. Cognitive radio systems and spectrum detecting strategies are a characteristic approach to enable these new advancements to be employed.

The need for higher information rates is expanding therefore of the move from voice-communication to sight and sound sort applications. Given the constraints on the characteristic frequency range, it winds up plainly indicating that the current static frequency allotment plans cannot oblige the prerequisites of an expanding number of higher information rate gadgets. Thus, creative procedures that can offer better approaches for effectively utilizing the accessible spectrum are required. Cognitive radio emerges to be a fascinating answer for the ghostly blockage issue by presenting entrepreneurial utilization of the spectrum groups that are not vigorously involved by authorized clients (Mitola, & Maguire, 1999; FCC, 2003). While there is no concession to the formal meaning of cognitive radio starting at now, the idea has advanced as of late to incorporate different implications in a few situations. In this chapter, the author utilizes the definition embraced by Federal Correspondences Commission (FCC):

Cognitive Radio: A radio or system that senses its operational electromagnetic environment and can dynamically and autonomously adjust its radio operating parameters to modify system operation, such as maximize throughput, mitigate interference, facilitate interoperability, access secondary markets. (FCC, 2003)

Henceforth, one primary part of cognitive radio is identified with independently making use of locally unused spectrum i.e., spectrum holes as in Figure 1 to give new ways for utilizing it in a better way.

Figure 1.

Illustration of spectrum holes


A standout amongst the most significant component of the cognitive radio idea is the capacity to quantify, sense, learn, and know about the parameters identified with the radio channel qualities, accessibility of range and power, radio's working condition, client prerequisites and applications, accessible systems (foundations) and hubs, neighborhood arrangements and other working confinements. In cognitive radio diction, primary clients can be characterized as the clients who have higher need or inheritance rights on the use of a particular piece of the spectrum whereas secondary clients, who have down need, employ this range of frequencies without disturbing primary clients. In this way, secondary (optional) clients need cognitive radio abilities, for example, detecting the spectrum dependably to check whether it is being utilized by a primary client and to change the radio parameters to exploit the unused piece of the spectrum.

Being the main objective of this chapter, spectrum detection by a wide margin is the most vital segment for the foundation of cognitive radio. Spectrum sensing is nothing but the process of acquiring knowledge about the spectrum utilization and presence of primary clients in a terrestrial range. This information can be acquired by utilizing geolocation and database, by utilizing reference signals, or by neighborhood spectrum detecting at cognitive radios (Marcus, 2005; Zhao, Morales, Gaeddert, Bae, Um, & Reed, 2007). Whenever reference signals are utilized, the transmitted data can be mixture of spectrum and also other propelled components, for example, channel quality.

In spite of the fact that spectrum detecting is generally comprehended as measuring the range of spectrum available or on the other hand measuring the radio frequency energy over the range; at the point when cognitive radio is thought of it as, is a more broad term that includes acquiring the range use qualities over numerous measurements, for example, time, space, frequency, and code. It likewise includes figuring out what sorts of signals the spectrum is composed of along with the type of modulation, waveform, data transmission, frequency, and so on. Despite, this requires more capable signal examining systems with extra computational intricacy.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Secondary User: Unlicensed user who always keep track of activities of primary user.

Interference: Process which changes or disrupts a signal while transmitting between transmitter and receiver.

Spectrum Holes: Band of frequencies where secondary user can transmit his data without affecting primary user.

Wireless Networks: It is a computer network which uses wireless connections for data transfer between nodes.

Cognitive Radio: It is an innovative intelligent technology that can automatically detect the unused licensed spectrum for allocation to non-licensed users.

Primary User: The user who is allocated with licensed spectrum for communication over network.

Spectrum Sensing: The process of continuous monitoring of a particular frequency band to occupy it if unused.

Channel Capacity: The rate (in bps) at which information is transmitted over communication link.

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