State and Corruption: National and International Aspects, Disparate Management Approaches

State and Corruption: National and International Aspects, Disparate Management Approaches

Art. Savidou (University of Neapolis, Cyprus)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2458-8.ch029


This chapter attempts to analyze the role of state and corruption through national and international aspects.
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State And Corruption

Greek cynic philosopher ANTISTHENIS1 bequeathed to us a great scientific principle: «Αρχή σοφίας ονομάτων επίσκεψις». (rendition): Wisdom begins from knowing senses.

Within this concept it considered necessary to delineate some basic notions incidental for the development of my subject.

The notion of State is already known. Briefly are only being mentioned the following:

Definitions by Georg JELLINEK (1851), are being mentioned (he defined State as legal entity of People equipped with primary authoritarian power, People established in a particular space), and Max WEBER, (who considered State as the institution which has the monopoly of legitimized physical violence, the monopoly of power) (Venizelos, 2008).

Today, everything that is called State, is entitled the designation “State” when it is sovereign and it is considered sovereign when in a defined geographical area it is shaped a primary, self reliant and independent shape of legitimate state organization, or order, which could be forced as supreme power.

Modern State also could be called national, as an expression of People’ s formated power (MANITAKIS, 2009).

According to another approach, State is the “functioned union of Law and Society” (TSATSOS, 1996). In this approach the element of compulsion is “lost”, and it is observed excess (abolition) of the functional separation of State from Society.

Beyond those, today, the term State is synonymous to State Power but legal order as well.

Regarding the last one, it is reminded here, XENOFON’s (n.d.) opinion «Έστι δε ουδέν ούτ’ εύχρηστον ούτε καλόν Ανθρώποις ως η τάξις». (rendition): «order is handy and good for people”.

Regarding the other component of the under investigation subject, the notion or corruption indicatively the following are being noted:

Corruption phenomena within the Greek territory constitute an endemic or familial (in Cyprus medical terminology) situation.

Briefly are being noted Forensic Orations of prominent Athenian Orators, attic comedies, legislative measures, which Athens state legislated in order to do away corruption phenomena, (death penalty included), while, the main way of prosecution, under the regime of Attic Law was “exercise of writ”: Writ of Presents (Bribery), Writ of theft, writ of Theft of Public Funds2, etc.

Beyond secular state, the term of corruption is also found in Christian Philology texts which mainly are admonishing to avoid it (Paul, n.d.). «Παραδιατριβαί διεφθαρμένων Ανθρώπων τον νουν και απεστηρημένων της αληθείας, νομιζόντων πορισμόν είναι την ευσέβειαν, αφίστασθε από των τοιούτων». (rendition): Do not get related with corrupted people, they are away from the truth.

Here is noted one of the most recent approaches of the term of corruption within the area of Political Sciences. It is the one, which considers corruption as part of the major matter of appropriation of Policy from Political System’s representatives.

Under this view two divergent between each other approaches between the concept: are discussed: ethics and politics3

The first one, Ethics, prerequisites behaviour rules, which begin from the point that Man “Acts” in a moral, ethic way.

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