Strategic Tools and Methods for Promoting Cultural Tourism

Strategic Tools and Methods for Promoting Cultural Tourism

Zoltán Bujdosó (Károly Róbert University College, Hungary), Gyöngyi Kovács (Károly Róbert University College, Hungary), Csaba Szűcs (Károly Róbert University College, Hungary) and Nyizsalovszki Domjánné Rita (Károly Róbert University College, Hungary)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9761-4.ch004
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Abstract

Culture, cultural tourism and experience economy are very common cited terms in the current literature. However these expressions are in close connection with each other, have own meanings and specialties, as well. Furthermore the promotion and selling the culture or cultural tourism are also popular activities and increasingly number of promotion tools appeared in the last decade. The objectives of this chapter are on the one hand to define the complex relations between culture, heritage, geography, tourism, economy and experience economy, on the other hand to get familiar the readers with the newest forms and trends in cultural tourism and experience economy furthermore to give an overview about the current promotion tools of cultural tourism.
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2. Background

The term ‘culture’ has no commonly accepted, universal definition. However, the majority of different interpretations seem to highlight the same concept: that culture is most often referred to as the relationship between the man-made world (including humans) and the world we are living in. Beyond this, culture also means the totality of distinguishing features of nations and nationalities, including all their tangible and intangible values and assets. According to the scientific definition by cultural anthropology, culture is the totality of a society’s knowledge, ensuring the cohesion and survival of that human community. Culture provides a guideline about the general standards and values of everyday life. ‘Based on this broad definition, culture includes all social practices, arts and intellectual activities, and is equal to the life-long distinguishing systems produced by individuals and/or social communities’. (Husz, 2007). The definition of culture has gone through significant changes during the millennia: originally it referred to the term ‘cultura agri’ (see Cato, around 160 B.C.), meaning ‘cultivation of the land’. In 45 B.C., Cicero defined culture as ‘culture animi’, meaning ‘cultivation of the soul’ in his work ‘Tusculan Disputation’. Today, in the 21st century, there are wider and narrower definitions of culture. The narrower meaning refers to arts, its producers and agents. The wider concept includes places of community culture, education, customs, traditions, morals and even languages. (Kenyeres, 1986). The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO defines culture as a set of assets added to nature by human kind. Among other things, culture includes the following factors: values, individual behaviour patterns, family relationships, safety, moral standards, expression on creativity, arts, handicrafts, traditions, rituals, community lifestyles, community bodies/organisations. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs. (UNESCO, 1982). According to the newest concepts, the term ‘culture’ consists of an inner and an outer circle, referring to a narrower and a wider definition. The narrower circle includes arts (e.g. fine arts, music, dance, literature) and cultural heritage assets (buildings, monuments). In a wider interpretation, culture includes elements of lifestyle (customs, traditions, religion, gastronomy) and creative industries (fashion, films, entertainment industry, design). (WTO ETC, 2005). In case of defining culture as an attraction, 3 main types are to be distinguished: (Mathielson & Wall, 1982. Dávid, Jancsik & Rátz, 2007)

  • Inert culture (e.g.: buildings, architectural styles, artistic creations, personal goods);

  • Everyday culture (e.g.: leisure activities, lifestyles, gastronomy); and

  • Enacted culture (e.g.: festivals, carnivals, traditional events).

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