Strategies for Social and Educational Inclusion in Visually Impaired People

Strategies for Social and Educational Inclusion in Visually Impaired People

Miguel Angel Brand Narvaez (Universidad del Valle, Colombia), Miguel A. Mora Gómez (Universidad del Valle, Colombia), Brayan A. Tabares Jaramillo. (Universidad del Valle, Colombia), Alejandro A. Osorio Ospina (Universidad del Valle, Colombia) and Juan David Hurtado Arrechea (Universidad del Valle, Colombia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7630-4.ch009
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The chapter focuses on the development of tools containing the basics of Braille and methods that help the people to manage this type of language to enhance the strength of collective thinking in educational statements, taking into account key background; this is why the development of tools containing the basic aspects of the Braille system and the necessary methods to enable the subject to master this type of language, enhancing the strength of collective thinking at the educational level, are so important. However, one of the main challenges in learning Braille is to engage the individual in literacy processes, which is why the creation of learning cards is proposed, to enable people to learn Braille.
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From a particular perspective in Latin America today, disability has not reached a great relevance in recognition, needs, and the very importance of adequate treatment and process, towards the people involved. Nevertheless, this subject has experienced important changes in its approach; from the characterization of the person like the victim, contestant of benefits of the government and charitable objective, until reaching a perspective like subjects of “rights, participants and actors, recognizing its retribution to the society and claiming its integration” (Stang, 2011, p.7).

When entering educational scenarios, the role that the educator plays particularly emphasizes the guidance and observation of the learning of his students or social group, an action that usually leads to the recognition of the environment of those involved, of the possible tensions, problems, and importance that the environment demands. Particularly, in an academic context, the conditions do not offer a bridge for the adequate learning of individuals with disabilities, looking for a more simplified structure in the general context, leaving aside the characterization of significant and inclusive learning.

The teacher's role is then focused on presenting pedagogical proposals to work with this type of population, creating this atmosphere with adequate tools that encourage the learning of the blind person that facilitates the relationship between the subject and the learning. In this way, it is highlighted that the inclusion of visually impaired people in education is of great importance, which includes developing learning and literacy strategies.

This is the case of the following chapter, which purpose is to contribute, mainly, to the development of tools that contain the basic aspects of the Braille System and the necessary methods that enable the subject to master this type of language, enhancing the strength of collective thought in the educational institutions. The research interest arises from academic research, developed in the university context of training in psychology, taking into account considerations and approaches, from educational psychology, to strengthen and supporting education for people with visual impairment in the city of Palmira, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia; all this by identifying mainly the teaching processes that are present in the system of tactile reading and writing Braille and recognizing the role of educational institutions with this population with visual impairment; culminating with a proposal as an intervention process teaching strategy, based on the tactile reading and writing system Braille, designed for any teacher of this subject, to enhance learning in this system.

This research was carried out based on the case of a visually impaired teacher, who works in teaching young people and adults with the same disability in a city establishment, using technological and manual tools, to provide autonomy and stable daily life for the subject, so that he can achieve fulfillment like any other person in the community; For the analysis of this educational ecosystem in which the subject is, the analysis of content is used which is centered in the frequencies, nevertheless the contextualization of the educational context is vital to recognize the tools that the institution in which the teacher has immersion favors since it is tried to materialize a proposal of learning strategy that facilitates the subject, the approach with the academic contents, since as Martinez (1993) (Quoted by Porta & Silva, 2003) says:

Educational research will be a process of application of scientific method and techniques to concrete situations and problems that can be presented in the educational area, to look for answers to them to obtain new knowledge or to improve the already acquired ones. (p.7).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Learning Processes: Learning processes are taken from the perspective of Vygotsky (1988) and his theory of the zone of proximal development (ZDP) where the teacher manages to be the scaffolding for the student to acquire new knowledge all from the cultural and language.

Educational Inclusion: Educational inclusion, also known as education for all, is a discipline that emerged during the 1970s in countries such as the United States, Sweden, and Denmark. Its evolution is a similar process in almost all countries since it begins as a type of special education, then goes through school integration that, through various experiences, leads to educational inclusion, which is the way people with disabilities can fight against discrimination (Padilla, 2011).

Tiflotechnology: The term Tiflotechnology which comes from the Greek Tiflo (blind), is incorporated into the Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy, this is defined as the study, procedures, and techniques of adaptation of technology for the use of blind people (Domenech Riera, 2010; Retaken by Sanchez, 2017).

Functional Diversity: From the Independent Living Forum, they approach that functional diversity does not seek to be related to terms such as disease, impairment, paralysis, delay, etc. These are part of a traditional medical model, which presents a person as imperfect and must be “fixed” to follow some parameters of “normality”. The term seeks in a certain way to humanize men and women, since, having different characteristics, they carry out their activities in a different way and sometimes with the help of others. (Romañach & Lobato, 2005).

Braille Literacy: Braille literacy consists of two terms, the first of which is “Literacy” is associated with the process where people learn different things (such as reading and writing), through the teaching of a teacher who communicates their knowledge. The second term “Braille” refers to a reading system used by blind people, which is based on the use of signs (Pérez, Arroyave, Herreño, Roa Perdomo & Rueda, 2018).

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