Strategies to Promote Pedagogical Knowledge Interplay with Technology

Strategies to Promote Pedagogical Knowledge Interplay with Technology

Prince Hycy Bull (North Carolina Central University, USA) and Gerrelyn C. Patterson (North Carolina Central University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9680-8.ch013
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Abstract

The transformation from face-to-face instruction to digital instruction or hybrid learning requires robust pedagogical strategies. This chapter addresses key pedagogical strategies used to support online learning experiences through the lenses of evidence-based educational theories. Additionally, the TPACK framework, which asserts that instruction requires the interplay of technological knowledge, content knowledge, and pedagogical knowledge, is used to analyze students' perceptions of flipped and double flipped online courses. The data show positive dispositions of flipping and double flipping the classroom as pedagogical strategies. Flipped content provided powerful instruction and provided participants with opportunities to utilize learned multimedia skills and receive constructive feedback from the instructor and peers. Double flipping promoted more classroom engagement, interactivity, and class discussions. In both flipped and double flipped classrooms, there was a shift from an instructor-driven learning environment to a whole-class driven learning environment.
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Introduction

With technology driving 21st century education, the infusion of appropriate pedagogical strategies supported by research-based theories will enhance digital delivery, promote positive learning outcomes, promote self-reflection and self-assessment, engage all learners in the process, and provide powerful learning experiences. Courses with online learning, fully online or hybrid/blended tend to produce stronger student learning outcomes than completely face-to-face instruction (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). The shift from face-to-face instruction to digital instruction or hybrid learning requires sound pedagogical strategies. Digital instruction includes didactic lectures or interactive text delivered over the web, internet-based collaboration, role-playing, simulations, and problem-solving instructional games. Digital instruction is designed mainly as a replacement for face-to-face instruction through virtual courses or as an enhancement for a face-to-face learning experience through hybrid or blended delivery. Pedagogical experiences determine who delivers the instruction or what controls how learners experience and acquire knowledge. These pedagogical experiences are classified into three major categories: expository learning or instruction, active learning, and interactive learning. Expository instruction deals with how digital devices are used to transmit knowledge. Active learning deals with how the learner builds knowledge through manipulation and interaction with digital resources. Interactive learning deals with how the learner builds knowledge through inquiry-based collaborative learning with instructors and peers.

This chapter addresses key pedagogical strategies and resources used to support learning experiences, digital instruction, synchronous, asynchronous, and hybrid learning. These pedagogical strategies are addressed through the lenses of evidence-based educational theories: the constructivist approach; technological knowledge, content knowledge, and pedagogical knowledge frameworks; self-efficacy theory; multiple intelligences theory; Bloom’s taxonomy revised; the Universal Design for Learning principle; and flipping and double-flipping of the classroom frameworks.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Pedagogy: The art or science of teaching. Pedagogy also addresses the instructional design and methods of a teaching environment.

Blended Learning: A learning structure that combines face-to-face learning with synchronous and asynchronous computer mediated learning structures.

Constructivist Approach: A learning structure that combines prior knowledge, experiences, and creativity to foster learning.

Double-Flipping of the Classroom: A bidirectional instructor and student-driven pedagogical strategy that provides students and instructors opportunities to review, discuss, and explore digital content independently outside the traditional classroom, via the Web, and then work on projects in the classroom collectively to support instruction.

Self-Efficacy: The extent or strength of one's belief in one's own ability to complete tasks or achieve a goal.

Learning Technologies: Any computer device used to support the creation of digital contents or used to support computer mediated instruction.

Digital Content: Any computer generated material – video, audio, presentations, web-based materials, interactive portable digital files, images, animations – used to support learning.

Synchronous Learning: A method of teaching in which the participants through computer mediated learning structures interact at the same time, although typically participants are not in the same place. Participants engage in real time to concepts presented in a learning environment.

Learning Management System: Online virtual space to create and facilitate fully integrated online classrooms.

Flipping of the Classroom: A unidirectional instructor-driven pedagogical strategy that provides students with opportunities to review, discuss, and explore digital content independently outside the traditional classroom via the Web, and then work on projects in the classroom with the instructor to support instruction.

Asynchronous Learning: A method of teaching and learning in which participants do not interact at the same time. In this form of learning, participants are usually not in the same place. Participants react at their own time and pace to concepts presented in the learning environment.

Universal Design for Learning: The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a set of principles for curriculum development that give all individuals equal opportunities to learn.

Multiple Intelligences Theory: Innate intelligences -- linguistics, musical, logical-mathematics, interpersonal, intrapersonal, spatial, and naturalist – which shape learning.

Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge: The dynamic interplay of three major knowledge components – technological knowledge, content knowledge, and pedagogical knowledge – to support teaching and learning in a computer mediated environment.

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