Stump: A Model for the Adoption, Implementation, and Use of M-Learning or E-Learning Platform

Stump: A Model for the Adoption, Implementation, and Use of M-Learning or E-Learning Platform

Nana Kofi Annan (Wisconsin International University College, Ghana)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0256-2.ch015


The purpose of this chapter is to discuss a model which can be used as a framework to guide the implementation and use of ICT for teaching and learning. The benefits of using ICT in Education are known, however, the problem is that the implementation and use of these ICTs in schools do not often yield the desired results as anticipated. In an attempt to address this problem, this chapter reviewed eleven information system models and adopted an Action Research strategy of inquiry using mixed methods involving both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection to gather a holistic data out of the emerged phenomenon in the academic and social-cultural context of the participants. The result shows that lack of skills, interest, time, pedagogic relevance of the technology among others are obstacles to the effective implementation and use of ICT in education. The findings led to the conceptualization of STUMP.
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The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) such as mobile computing or mobile ICTs in education has the potential to promote teaching and learning both at the individual and institutional level. As educators recognize the rewarding outcome, many educational institutions from primary to tertiary are making huge investment in ICTs for various purposes, but many of them do not attain the potential benefits as anticipated (Dawes, 2001). In an attempt to address this overarching challenge, many researchers in Information Systems (IS) and education have attributed it to numerous factors from different perspectives. Davis et al (1989) argues that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, among others, are some of the issues, which impede users from accepting and using the technology. Some of which could be fear of computers, negative perception or attitude toward ICTs in general, little or no motivation to entice users to adopt the technology (David, Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989). Several others add their bit to the discourse with other factors.

The purpose of this study was to investigate how mobile computing could be effectively leveraged and incorporated into tertiary education. This was motivated by the challenge facing educational institutions on implementation of technology. Educational institutions are aware of the benefits of incorporating ICT into teaching and learning methods, however, the problem is how to make it happen. This problem has been attributed to many factors as observed from relevant literature within the area of technology implementation in relation to educational technologies, ICTs and MIS. Depending on how the implementation is conceived, the factors may vary or overlaps.

STUMP as proposed in this study is to provide a framework for analyzing the users’ skill, interest and knowledge of the technology being implemented; their take on the time and technical issues such as system quality, service quality and information quality; the user’s demographics, social cultural, attitude and ethos; their motivational level and the pedagogic relevance of the technology within the framework of tertiary education. To achieve this, five main questions were asked as the key determinants of what is happening, why it is happening and how to tackle the problem. These were:

  • 1.

    Do the users have the needed skill, affect and knowledge to use the technology?

  • 2.

    What is their view on time and technical issues of the technology?

  • 3.

    How do their social cognitive compositions affect them in using technology?

  • 4.

    Are the users well motivated to use the technology?

  • 5.

    Do they perceive the technology to be pedagogically useful?



The introduction of technology in education organization involves several stakeholders whose collaborative efforts are needed to ensure the success of the technology in the organization. These could be external – Policy & regulatory authorities, software and hardware suppliers, infrastructure providers and parents and guardians, or internal – management, teachers, students and none teaching staff. Diverse input from all these actors play an important role in making an implementation of technology successful within the framework of education organizations, but the internal players comprising of the teacher, student and administrative staff are the actual users of the technology if it is implemented. Ely and Donald’s study on the conditions that facilitate the implementation of educational technology innovations came out with these eight conditions:

  • 1.

    Dissatisfaction of the status quo,

  • 2.

    Knowledge and skills,

  • 3.

    Resource availability,

  • 4.

    Time availability,

  • 5.

    Rewards or incentives,

  • 6.

    Encouragement for participation,

  • 7.

    Commitment by stakeholders, and

  • 8.

    Evidence of leadership as being what pose challenges to educational technology implementation (Ely, 1990).

Key Terms in this Chapter

System Use: This is considered as the degree and manner in which users utilize the capabilities of the information system.

Skill: An ability to do an activity or job well, especially because you have practiced it.

Service quality: This refers to the support that the system users receive from the information system department and the information technology support personnel or the service provider.

System Quality: Is a desirable characteristic of an information system which focus on usability and performance of a particular system.

Pedagogy: The study of the methods and activities of teaching or the act of teaching.

Knowledge: The state of knowing about or being familiar with something, information or understanding about a subject that you get by experience or study.

Interest: The feeling of wanting to give your attention to something or of wanting to be involved with and to discover more about something.

Information Quality: A desirable characteristic of a system output which measures the quality of the information that the system generates and its usefulness to the user.

Cognitive: Connected with thinking or conscious mental processes.

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