Sustainable Development in Agriculture: Past and Present Scenario of Indian Agriculture

Sustainable Development in Agriculture: Past and Present Scenario of Indian Agriculture

Vaibhav Bhatnagar (Amity University Jaipur, India) and Ramesh C. Poonia (Amity University Jaipur, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5909-2.ch003

Abstract

Agriculture is the prime source of livelihood for human beings, animals, and all living beings. Agriculture also plays a vital role in the economy of India. This chapter describes the importance of agriculture and factors affecting the development of agriculture. The international scenario of agriculture, current status of Indian agriculture, and position of Rajasthan (state in India) in agriculture are described in this chapter. The total production, total imports and exports, method of irrigation, net area of irrigation, types of crops, fertilization consumption, and highlight of Union Budget 2018-19 of Indian agriculture are described in this chapter. The geography of Rajasthan according to agriculture, production of crop, and consumption of fertilization are also elaborated in this chapter. This chapter is concluded with future perspectives of India agriculture.
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Importance Of Agriculture

  • Prime source of Livelihood: Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in most of the countries even if they are developed countries. Agriculture contributes around 70% in an economy, which is a heavy component indeed. India is the country of agriculture, in which agriculture products are directory used at farmer’s kitchen rather than in the market.

  • Generate National Income: Agriculture also use to generate income at national level. In India, many commercial commodities like tobacco, tea and spices etc. are exported which generate heavy national income.

  • Generate Employment: Agriculture provides large number of employment. In India, there are so many peoples who do not have their own land for agriculture, but they are working on someone’s land and they are maintaining their family well.

  • Maintain Ecological Balance: Greenhouse effect and global farming are the well-known international problems. Plantation is only the solution of these problems. Orchids and gardens not only prevent Greenhouse Effect and Global Farming but also enhance the beauty of the earth.

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Factors Affect Agriculture

As it is seen above, agriculture is very important for livelihood and to maintain economy of a country. There are so many factors that affect the growth of agriculture. Some factors are chemical & Biological in nature whereas some factors are technical and depend upon market demand (Factors Affect Irrigation, 2018). Factors affect agriculture is depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Factors affect Agriculture

Genetic and Heredity

There are so many genetic and heredity factors that affect the growth of agriculture like chemical compositions, tolerance of disease, early maturity, quality of straw and high yield ability. For example, wheat has several varieties like H1 1531, DBW 16, HD 2888, NIAW 917 and etc. H1 1531 yields 25-27 Q/H and DBW 16 yields 37-39 Q/H. So, if a farmer yields DBW 16, he will yield more amount of wheat.

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