Sustainable Waste Management System and Reverse Logistic Network Design in Plastic Industry: A Case Study of Turkey

Sustainable Waste Management System and Reverse Logistic Network Design in Plastic Industry: A Case Study of Turkey

Emel Kizilkaya Aydogan (Erciyes University, Turkey), Nuray Ates (Erciyes University, Turkey), Nigmet Uzal (Nigde University, Turkey), Fulya Zaral (Erciyes University, Turkey) and Petraq Papajorgji (European University of Tirana, Albania)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4852-4.ch048
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Abstract

The shortage of natural sources and the threat of the bad trend have forced the industries to find environmentally-friendly alternatives and ecological approaches in their production line. In some countries, regulations have been issued for industries about this subject. Due to these reasons and more of them, logistic firms have been forced to take into consideration decreasing material and energy consumption and minimizing waste production in planning their network designs. In practice, it might be necessary to simultaneously optimize more than one conflicting objective to obtain effective and realistic solutions. In this chapter, current logistics network design of a plastic industry in Turkey has been investigated and reverse logistics network design has been developed to minimize waste production and to achieve green production. This chapter presents a mathematical model which is a fuzzy goal programming model for imprecise goals for reverse logistic network design with multiple objectives in plastic sector. The considered objectives are to reduce cost in reverse logistics, to improve product quality, and to provide environmental benefits by minimizing waste production.
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2. Sustainable Waste Management

The term of waste including solid, liquid, and gaseous emissions is defined unwanted by-products of human activities. In the last century, waste production has been one of the most important problems in all countries (Al-Salem, 2009; Al-Salem et al., 2009). Among the produced wastes in communities, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is the most complex solid waste stream due to resulting from households, industrial or agricultural activities. According to European Union (EU) reports, MSW generation per capita in the EU-27 had been increasing until 2006 (from 499 kg in 1997 to 523 kg in 2006), but since 2006 appears to be stabilizing at between 523 and 525kg (EC, 2010). In Turkey, MSW generation per capita has been as 420 kg (1.15 kg/d.ca) in municipalities based on Turkish Statistical Institute 2008 data (TURKSTAT, 2008). In Kayseri, the waste generation per capita is 498 kg (1.15 kg/d.ca). The waste composition comprises 68.5% organics, 10% paper and cardboard, 11% plastics, 3.8% glass, 0.4% metal, 2.9% textile, 1.7% yard waste, and 1.7% others (Personal Communication with Municipality authorized). Composition and generation rate of MSW depend on many factors such as social pattern, income, level of life-style, education and so on. Even a slight increase in income can cause consumption patterns of people to change, which results in amount and composition of MSW that lead a greater challenge for the municipalities to handle (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009). However, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) interpret waste as not to be faced a problem, actually waste should be considered as resource to be managed properly, ‘‘The increasing volumes of waste being generated would not be a problem if waste was viewed as a resource and managed properly” (UNEP, 2001).

The major categories of MSW management systems are

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