Synchronized Operation of Grid Power, Solar Power, and Battery for Smart Energy Management

Synchronized Operation of Grid Power, Solar Power, and Battery for Smart Energy Management

Pawan Kumar (Thapar University, India) and Dip V. Thanki (Lovely Professional University, India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 37
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3935-3.ch008
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This chapter gives details of solar photovoltaic, starting from its general pros and cons. It covers the basics of site evaluation when installing a solar powered plant and various ways to overcome the uncertainties in the predicted output of the solar arrays. The efficiency of the plant can be improved with the help of maximum power point tracker (MPPT), which works on algorithms based on perturb and observe, incremental conductance, constant voltage, etc. The output of the solar PV arrays can be utilized more effectively by integrating it with grid to supply ac loads. This integration requires a power conditioning system (PCS), enabling smooth operation. Continuity of supply can be maintained by having a battery backup, for the time when both grid and solar array fail to meet the load demand. Such a system can have wide range of applications and has the potential to meet the energy demand.
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Kumar et al. (2015) have developed a simulation model of the synchronized operation of the grid power, solar power and battery for a smart home. In this model authors have shown that under different temperature and irradiance the output power varies and the operating time of the grid and solar power changes accordingly. Abdulkadir et al. (2014), presented an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) based MPPT technique for photovoltaic system operating under different environmental conditions. Chandwani and Kothari (2016) comprise of detailed study in the field of MPPT in a simulative environment using MATLAB and the same results are reproduced in hardware using Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm. However, a method for the reduction of the steady state oscillation (to practically zero) once the maximum power point (MPP) is located is described by the Ishaque et al. (2012) and Shukla et al. (2015) studied the effect of variation in temperature and irradiance and the results are observed from simulation in MATLAB environment. Here, authors have developed program which allows the prediction of PV module behavior under different temperature and irradiance.

A detailed analysis and modeling of Solar and Fuel cells using Cadence SPICE, and to investigate dynamic interactions between the modules and power conversion circuits is presented in the thesis of Krishnamurthy (2009). The results are simulated using equivalent electronic static and dynamic models for Solar and Fuel Cells. Kumar et al. (2011, 2013, 2016 and 2017) presented a detailed analysis of the different load models which are voltage dependent. In these studies author have observed that the system voltage profile not only affect the power loss rather it majorly changes the system loadability and load profile. During peak load conditions the voltage profile usually found to be low and hence the operating efficiency of the system decreases. In order to improve the operating efficiency the integration of the solar power may help in relieving the overload and simultaneously improve the voltage and the load profile at respective nodes. On the other hand, in the ever growing demand scenario a comprehensive stability analysis, reactive power injection, loss minimization under different loading pattern for distribution system are appears in the work presented by Kumar and Singh (2014a, 2014b, 2014c)

Key Terms in this Chapter

Storage Battery: It is a battery (or cell) used for storing electrical energy.

Operating Point: The current AU131: Anchored Object 30 and voltage AU132: Anchored Object 31 that a photovoltaic module AU133: Anchored Object 32 or array AU134: Anchored Object 33 produces when connected to a load. AU135: Anchored Object 34 The operating point is dependent on the load or the batteries connected to the output terminals of the array.

AC and DC Load: The electrical components which operate at AC and DC supply is termed as the AC and DC loads, respectively.

Grid Tie Inverter (GTI): It is a device that converts DC supply into AC supply suitable for injecting into an electrical power grid at desired voltage and frequency level.

Insolation: The solar power density incident on a surface of stated area and orientation, usually expressed as watts AU127: Anchored Object 26 per square meter or Btu AU128: Anchored Object 27 per square foot per hour.

Solar Constant: The average amount of solar radiation that reaches the earth's upper atmosphere on a surface perpendicular to the sun's rays; equal to 1353 watts per square meter or 492 Btu per square foot.

Irradiance: The direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation that strikes a surface. It is usually expressed in kilowatts AU129: Anchored Object 28 per square meter. Irradiance multiplied by time equals insolation AU130: Anchored Object 29 .

Grid Power: The power received from electrical grid is known as grid power.

Photovoltaic (PV) Conversion Efficiency: The ratio of the electric power produced by a photovoltaic device to the power of the sunlight incident on the device.

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT): It is an algorithm that included in charge controllers used for extracting maximum available power from PV module under certain operating conditions.

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