System and Environment for Tourism 4.0: How Does a Digital System Work for the Promotion and Evaluation of Gastronomic Tourism Fairs?

System and Environment for Tourism 4.0: How Does a Digital System Work for the Promotion and Evaluation of Gastronomic Tourism Fairs?

Danny C. Barbery-Montoya (Universidad Espíritu Santo, Ecuador), César A. Vélez Del Hierro (Universidad Espíritu Santo, Ecuador) and Nathaly Y. Arroba-Hurtado (Universidad Espíritu Santo, Ecuador)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2097-0.ch009


Smart cities are a new scheme for urban planning and management, in which smart destinations become key points for tourist attraction. The objective of the present study is to determine through the theoretical review, the most appropriate technological tools to be used in fairs and turn them into smart spaces. The Raíces International Gastronomic Fair of the city of Guayaquil and its satisfaction / dissatisfaction indexes are taken as an example case in order to propose a technological management system that improves its performance, in which the use of Big Data, georeferencing, IoT, and augmented reality are key pieces to guarantee the security, experience, and promotion of the event.
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Industrial evolution has had three major changes or evolutions, and today humanity enters a fourth evolution that has been named 4.0 industries. The first revolution begins with the industrial revolution, which was based on mechanization through hydraulic power and steam engines; the second revolution occurs as a consequence of the first with mass production and assembly lines using electricity. After this, industry 3.0 began giving the path to the introduction of computers in manufacturing processes. At the time, it was seen as a significant change in production processes. However, industry 4.0 has entered as a new way of understanding behavior patterns, and insights through the analysis of big data generated, and that makes companies operation more efficient (Marr, 2018).

Industry 4.0 and intelligent manufacturing will generate large contributions from shorter cycles for the development of new products, integrated and automated production processes to providing real-time information that generates collaboration networks for better decision making. However, there is a need for the creation of government initiatives to develop this industry, as well as the support of institutions that generate training for the use of these technologies. Additionally, the creation of a national plan that defines infrastructure development strategies and competences on of use and safety issues (Ynzunza, Izar, Bocarando, Aguilar, & Larios, 2017). Among the technological pillars on which industry 4.0 is based we can find: a) Integration systems; b) Autonomous machines and systems (robots); c) Internet of Things (IoT); d) Additive manufacturing; e) Big data and big data analysis; f) Cloud computing; g) Simulation of virtual environments; h) Artificial intelligence; i) Cybersecurity; j) Augmented reality (Basco, Beliz, Coatz, & Garnero, 2018) which significantly affects the value chain of companies and also the supply chain, making them more efficient.

The digital transformation is not only limited to changing the work environment, but it is intrusive in all social spheres such as culture, education or citizen security (Del Val Román, 2017), where tourism is no an exception, since it is a sector that uses information intensively in every stage of the value chain where the use of storage clouds, mobile devices, Internet of Things and collaborative economies, are of high importance for the development of this industry (Orange, 2016). Such is the case that tourist mobility is generated according to the decisions that are made, according to the ratings they find on the Internet, and generate their purchases through online channels (Barbery-Montoya, Andrade-Vargas & Zambrano-Lozano, 2018).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Bots: A bot is a software that performs an automated task. More specifically, a bot is an automated application used to perform simple and repetitive tasks that would be time-consuming, mundane, or impossible for a human to perform.

Artificial Intelligence (AI): It is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

Targeting: In marketing, it refers to the choice of one or several target groups of clients, as a focus of attention.

IoT: Internet of Things. It refers to devices that work with Wi-Fi connection generating convenience and speed to users.

QR code: A quick response code or QR code is an evolution of the barcode. It has the function, in addition to the coding of products (used by the seller), the link to websites that complement the product information or advertising (used by the buyer).

Virtual Community: The term virtual community designates people linked through the Internet by common values or interests, such as tastes, hobbies, or professions. The goal of the community is to create values through the exchange between members by sharing suggestions or advice or simply by discussing a topic.

Ambassador: In marketing, an ambassador or brand ambassador is a person who has extensive knowledge of a specific product or service. He is also an admirer of that product and knows what it brings. In this way, he will make recommendations based on his own experience as a consumer of the product.

Viral Marketing: Marketing technique that seeks a message reproduction and viral self-replication.

Hot Points: These are specific points of high recurrence on the part of the public that visit a place.

eWOM: digital word-of-mouth. This term refers to the comments generated as a result of experience and proposed in a social network.

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