System of People-Computer: On the Way of Creation of Human-Oriented Interface

System of People-Computer: On the Way of Creation of Human-Oriented Interface

Anatoly Korikov, Oleg Krivtsov
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9489-7.ch032
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We live in the world of simple and difficult systems. This classification of systems is very conditional, nevertheless, the vast majority of our readers “the person – the computer” will enlist system in a class of difficult systems. In literature and the Internet this system is considered from various positions: philosophical, social, psychological, etc. In this “sea” of information it is possible to learn a lot of interesting about the considered systemHuman-machine interaction we will distinguish a complex problem of development of methods and means of effective interaction of people and the computer from many problems of ChMV. The solution of the called ChMV problem at the modern level is impossible without use of additional channels of information transfer (the speech, an articulation of lips, gestures, the direction of a look, etc.). In this direction many researchers and developers of computer interfaces, as in our country, and abroad work. Developers of the perspective human-machine computer systems (HMCS) consider that in system it is necessary to use some information channels (feelings of the person – the user) for input and output of an information action. Out of five human feelings (hearing, sight, taste, touch, sense of smell) the preference is given in our research to sight as the importance of visual information for the person is well-known.
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Main Focus Of The Chapter

The history of computer facilities goes to depth of centuries and is closely connected with mathematics history. Already in ancient Rome the elementary adaptation for acceleration of the account which was called abacuses was used. Ancient Roman abacuses I represented the plate divided by partitions into the offices corresponding to categories of number. In offices stones which number in office equaled to value of the category were located and could change depending on the chosen numeral system (in a decimal numeral system from 0 to 9). The heritage an abacus remained in the name of mathematical calculations: calculus has a Latin origin and means the account stones. The person at interaction with abacuses had one “problem”: pebbles were easily scattered and lost. This problem was successfully solved by Chinese. They strung stones on spokes and inserted them into a wooden frame. In such type of abacuses I got to Russia and I began to be called as accounts which are used and today.

In fascinating history of the computer facilities (CF) it is accepted to allocate four periods: past mechanical, mechanical, electromechanical and electronic. From a position of our time the past mechanical, mechanical and electromechanical periods can be called conditionally background of electronic computer facilities. The past mechanical period from the middle of the XVII century leaves deep into centuries. The main achievements of a house-hanichesky era – scores and a slide rule. Other major achievements of background of electronic computer facilities are presented in figure 1.

Figure 1.

Main achievements of preelectronic history


In figure 1 the main events of a mechanical and electromechanical era of history of computer facilities are celebrated. The car of the German professor Wilhelm Schikkard (1623) teaching mathematics and astronomy in to Tyu-bingena admits our chronology of the main events of the mechanical period the earliest computer (Korikov, et al, 2010). V. Shikkard's place in chronology is challenged in some researches on history of science and equipment on the ground that data on its car appeared only in 1958 after research of archives of the well-known astronomer I. Kepler and archival funds of library of Stuttgart (Korikov, et al, 2010). However we will notice that the historical science is written on the basis of the similar facts and if the fact is recognized by historians of science and equipment, to it a place in chronology of events of science. The main events of the mechanical and electromechanical periods of history of computer facilities celebrated in figure 1 in details are described.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Human-Computer Interaction: Polydisciplinary research area, the existing and evolving in order to improve development methods, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use, as well as to study various aspects of this use.

Computer: A device or system capable of performing specified, well-defined variable sequence of operations.

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