TB Models

TB Models

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-6974-9.ch004


Results of the systemic analysis conducted in the previous chapter are presented here. These are introduced as a TB taxonomy comprising nine types of TB. Each TB type is described with help of graphical models, specifically diagrams and charts. Diagrams provide graphical representation, and charts are presented in a tabular form in which particular specifics are described. The final part of this chapter discusses root definitions for every single TB model. In the end, common outputs are presented. Consequently, based on all available information, theoretical background, and the analysis of current approaches, a universal TB model is proposed. Similarly to single models in the TB taxonomy, the description of main characteristics such as inputs or subsystems of this universal model is provided.
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Charts And Diagrams Of Time Bank Models

This sub-chapter introduces charts and diagrams for each of the TB models. For each model there is a commentary about the main differences from other approaches and main differences in inputs, the system P, its sub-systems Q and Q2 and wider system R. Also, outputs are present this time on the charts. Outputs will be briefly commented on and a summary is presented at the end of this section. The models will be introduced in a logical progression from simplest to most complicated in P2P and its special models with Self-management and Virtual, through P2O and its sub-versions of Homogenous approach and Pension scheme, to O2O and its higher version O2OP. Lastly, the concept of TB Networks will be introduced.

Person to Person TB Model

The Person to Person TB Model is shown in Figure 1 and Box 1.

Figure 1.

Person to Person model

Source: Author’s research.
Box 1. Person to Person model of TB

Source: Author’s research.


The P2P TB model is a basic one, usually founded by active citizens through a NGO.

  • Inputs are visible in the left column. The only special feature here is that recruitment and joining is open only for people. Even if a person is an entrepreneur, thus a legal entity, it enters P2P TB as a human being (otherwise we would consider such person an Organization, and it would be entered in a different model).

  • The System (P) and its Sub-systems (Q, Q2). The system contains all available sub-systems, Membership base, Base organization. Coordination is sub-system of the base organization, as well as Time Credits with the sub-system of Exchange platform.

  • Members can be from one or more focus groups; they form interest groups and they provide information about their SKART, and through this they create information about Offers and Requests, which feedbacks to the wider system. In addition, they provide feedback based on their own experience with exchanges, TC, quality and Offers and Requests.

  • Base organization provides a framework by its statutes and rules, provides a coordinator and conducts decision making.

  • Within or from outside a base organization, one or more coordinators is appointed. The coordinator performs matchmaking, receives SKART information from members, uses it for Matchmaking and uses the database of SKART to update information. Besides this, the coordinator provides networking and various events for members, takes cares of the funding of TB, manages it and keeps the security level high.

  • Time credits are exchanged on the basis of an exchange platform, which is usually an IT solution, but it may also be a paper ledger or monetarized TC.

  • Wider system entities include citizens, NGO, Businesses and Government and its organizations, all with roles outlined in the chart.

  • Outputs are listed in following chart

The P2P model is the basic one in which people transform their SKART into offers and requests. All inputs are transformed to outputs listed in Box 2.

Box 2. Outputs of P2P TB model
Impacts on "R" Entities
Feedback of security keeping by coordinator and existence of rules of a TB raise credibility
Information about TG variety stimulates joining
Feedback about participation (motivation for recruit.)
Feedback about spin-off events and activities of IG
SavingsSocial sphere
Local business development
Systemic Outputs (on Outside Environment)
Utilization of unused SKART
Societal "bottom-up" problem solving by co-production (citizens use TB as a tool to solve own actual problems)
Non-formal Education
Healthcare improvement (de-institutionalization)
Awakening of dormant markets
Reviving local economy
Spin-off projects and innovation
Learning - Enhanced Information and Knowledge sharing
Systemic Feedbacks
+All outputs above induce positive feedback towards its own "R" entity
-Misunderstanding about social/business role towards some "R" entities
-Could be misunderstood by government and restricted/forbidden

Source: Author’s research.

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