Teacher Socialization in a Changing World: Functionalist, Interpretive, and Critical Perspectives

Teacher Socialization in a Changing World: Functionalist, Interpretive, and Critical Perspectives

Asiye Toker Gökçe (Kocaeli University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5228-4.ch009
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Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to examine teacher socialization with different aspects. Therefore, teacher socialization was investigated as a concept. Afterward, the primary socialization traditions—functionalist, interpretive, and critical—were explained, and then the idea of teacher socialization was examined thoroughly according to these traditions. Throughout the chapter, the items of the stages of socialization, and Lacey's model of socialization, the social strategies of beginning/novice teachers, the socializing factors, the socialization role of preservice teacher education and induction period, socialization in the workplace and culture were examined.
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Socialization Content

Socialization means the process of learning a new role in a culture. It indicates the processes during which the individual acquires knowledge, skills, beliefs, and personal dispositions required to perform a given role satisfactorily (Greenfield, 1986). It is an ongoing process throughout the life course and can be achieved by different kinds of persons, including parents, teachers, peers, and siblings, alongside by the schools, the media, the internet, the workplace, and common cultural institutions. It refers to the way in which individuals are assisted in through many paths such as discipline after deviation, modeling, proactive techniques, and routines becoming members of social groups. Socialization cannot be adequately understood without a consideration of how biological and socio-cultural factors interact in a complex and entwined manner. Instead of this, it involves a variety of outcomes, including the acquisition of rules, roles, standards, and values across the social, emotional, cognitive, and personal domains (Grusec & Husting, 2015). Berger (1991) claims that socialization is never entirely fulfilled since some people live in the transmitted universe more definitely than the others do.

Socialization is a life process and takes place at different stages such as primary, secondary and adult socialization. The primary socialization indicates the socialization of the young child in the family. The secondary socialization period identifies the process at school, and the third period mentions the rest of life of the person as adult socialization. Primary socialization is the first socialization of individuals, which they experience during their childhood, and through which they become a member of society. The secondary socialization is following in time, and it adapts already socialized individuals to new sectors in different environments of their community. Adult socialization is a process that a people learn to take on new duties in which they enter roles for which primary and secondary socialization might not prepare them properly (Berger, 1991; Samiksha, 2016; Todi, 2016). It includes more clear and precise norms and behaviors, such as those associated with the job role. An individual is socialized as a learner within the context of the family, the peer group, the school in an early period of his/her life. This process is the primary socialization of the individual. The person is also socialized through the formal relations such as work environment in adulthood. The adult socialization is self-initiated; therefore, the person joins in this process voluntarily, and s/he can quit or terminate it at any time (Mortimer & Simmons, 1978).

Lieberman (1988) identifies professional socialization as the process, which mediates the acquisition of knowledge and skills and internalization of the norms, values, and attitudes of the profession. Professional socialization generates the ability to adopt the status of the job and the functional conduct related to the status. It occurs both at an anticipatory stage in prior experiences and at the time; therefore, an individual is intentionally preparing to take on a professional role, such as teaching. In some instances, this professional socialization involves university preparation and some qualification (Crow, 2007). In this sense, professional socialization provides the knowledge, skills, and values that an individual will need to carry out teaching regardless of the school.

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