Techniques for Analysis of Mobile Malware

Techniques for Analysis of Mobile Malware

Gopinath Palaniappan (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC), India), Balaji Rajendran (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC), India), S. Sangeetha (National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli, India) and NeelaNarayanan V (VIT University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8241-0.ch010

Abstract

The rapid rise in the number of mobile devices has resulted in an alarming increase in mobile software and applications. The mobile application markets/stores too have created a fundamental shift in the way mobile applications are delivered to users, with apps being added and updated in thousands every day. Even though research progresses have been achieved towards detection and mitigation of mobile security, open challenges still remain and also keep evolving in this area. Several studies reveal that mobile application markets/stores do harbor applications that are either vulnerable or malicious in nature, leading to compromises of millions of devices. This chapter (1) captures the attack surface of mobile devices, (2) lists the various mobile malware analysis techniques, and (3) lays the ground for research on mobile malware by providing mobile malware dataset resources, tools for malware analysis, patent landscaping for mobile malware detection, and a few open challenges in malware analysis.
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Introduction

The count of the Mobile devices is increasing dramatically day-by-day. Mobile devices have raised above from just being a digital device or a smartphone, in fact they have turned into a platform for convergence of our personal and digital life because of their rich computing capabilities and its wide range of features such as easier communication, more than one internet connectivity mechanisms, the storage including multimedia and so on. The ubiquitous presence of mobile devices can be understood from the statistics in Figure 1 below. The mobile devices remain online continuously by seamlessly connecting through mobile data or the closest available Wi-Fi, and keeps downloading and uploading data intermittently, increasing the complexities in protecting the data.

Figure 1.

Sales of smartphone shipments across the globe from 2009 to 2017 and projections for 2018 to 2022

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(Source: The Statistics Portal: www.statista.com)

There exist several Mobile device vendors who deliver their devices bundled with major mobile operating systems such as Android (by Google), iOS (by Apple) and others. However recent times has seen mentionable increase in the number of Android-based Mobile devices when compared to other mobile operating systems (Figure 2).

Figure 2.

Global mobile OS market share in sales to end users from 1st quarter 2009 to 2nd quarter 2018

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(Source: The Statistics Portal: www.statista.com)

The ubiquitous nature of mobile devices has resulted in drastic rise in the number of applications in the mobile market, complicating mobile security further (Imran Ashraf, 2012). These applications are an add-on to the features and capabilities of the mobile devices. They also make the life of the users better by providing them with the functionalities such as financial transactions, entertainment, shopping, games, personal health tracking and so on, on their own personal mobile devices, regrettably not every application does what it seems to do, and perhaps it is difficult for users to detect a well-crafted application or forgery that withdraw data surreptitiously apart from its listed function. The mobile applications can be easily accessed, downloaded and installed by the users on to their devices from the openly available through third party and official app stores such as App Store and Google Play provide and maintained by Apple and Google respectively. However, the easily available and installable apps do come with equally severe security risks, vulnerabilities and threats.

Mobile devices are susceptible to various types of attacks (Figure 3): physical, over the network, via a vulnerability exploit of the underlying Operating System or the installed applications, or via malware.

Figure 3.

Attack surface of mobile devices

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The physical security of a mobile device is a basic threat related to loss of device, theft of device or temporary physical access. It can be ensured by facility to locate device, backup, passcode and other protection mechanisms. The Network-based attacks are possible because of: (a) general protocol vulnerabilities, (b) design issues affecting mobile OS, and (c) excessive use of untrusted networks. The App-level vulnerabilities are: (a) plain HTTP, (b) certificate pinning, (c) HTTP request hijacking. And finally, the maliciously vulnerable apps which can successfully breach the application security or privacy, or device security is the Malware.

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